4.ERGO-ANTHRO - 1 ERGONOMICS ENGINEERING ANTHROPOMETRY 2...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 ERGONOMICS ENGINEERING ANTHROPOMETRY 2 – Anthropometry deals with the measurement of the dimensions of the body and other physical characteristics – Engineering use of the available information and development of new information for such use is called engineering anthropometry – Royal cubit was used by the ancient Egyptians (1314-1197 B.C.) as a standard unit of measure 1 cubit = the distance from elbow to tip of the longest finger = 28 finger widths = 7 * the width of palm 3 Evolution of Anthropometry 14 th century – initial surveys of human body dimensions 18 th century – complete anthropometric data 20 th century – standardization of measurement methods Most surveys were carried out for military people and civilians Young adults and elderly are not well represented Detailed surveys are time consuming and expensive . The best alternative is the survey of key dimensions 4 The Primary Areas of Application Clothing design Workspace design Environment design Design of equipment, tools, and machinery Consumer product design Anthropometric data establish proper sizes of and the dimensional relationships between the things people use 5 Ergonomic designs cannot accommodate every user, the extremes will always be special cases to be uniquely accommodated Ergonomic designs must accommodate a range of user dimensions, typically from a 5th percentile woman to a 95th percentile man. This range will accommodate 9.5 out of 10 users. 5 - 95 percentile for one population is only 90% (95- 5% =90% of people), and only 95% for a 50/50 mixed gender population. If you design for 90%, you'll fit 9 out of 10, 90 out of 100, 900 out of 1000, etc. 6 Certain aspects of design may call for only one set of dimensions to be used Reach parameter is based on 5 th percentile values. Clearances usually call for designs based on 95 th percentile values Design for an adjustable range There can be significant cost/benefit tradeoffs as the percentile range is extended. Each successive percent of the population to be accommodated increases the costs relative to the benefits, i.e. there are diminishing returns. Many aspects of adjustability are only necessary if the users cannot be specified. 7 Measurement Devices and Techniques The conventional measurement techniques may use the following devices – Spreading and sliding calipers for short distance measurements – Anthropometers – Tapes to measure circumferences and contours – Simple scales – Cones and boards with holes for grip circumference and finger- size measurement Inexpensive but time consuming 8 The Morant Technique...
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2011 for the course ECON Econ203 taught by Professor Majdabpadawnan during the Spring '11 term at University of Maribor.

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4.ERGO-ANTHRO - 1 ERGONOMICS ENGINEERING ANTHROPOMETRY 2...

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