6.ERGO-CTDPIC - ERGONOMICS CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS...

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ERGONOMICS CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS
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DEFINITION Cumulative Trauma Disorders  (CTD) is a collective  term for syndromes characterized by discomfort,  impairment, disability or persistent pain in joints,  muscles, tendons and other soft tissues, with or  without physical manifestations
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Cumulative injuries occur often in connective soft  tissues, particularly to tendons and their sheaths.  They may irritate or damage nerves and impede the blood flow through arteries and veins. They are frequent in the hand-wrist forearm area,  (for example, the ‘carpal tunnel syndrome’) and in  shoulder and neck.  Repetitive loadings may even damage bone, such as  the vertebrae of the spinal column.
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Does it have only one name ? Many different terms have been used to  describe the observed events such as  over- use injury, cervicobrachial disorder, cumulative trauma injury, repetition strain injury, repetitive motion injury, rheumatic disease, osteoarthrosis
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Who are at high risk? Data entry workers Automobile workers Poultry workers Meat packers Rock drillers Dentists and hygienists
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Is it a new phenomenon? Injuries due to repetitive stresses are not a new phenomenon Bernardino Ramazzini reported in 1813 that this condition occurred  among clerks and scribes. He believed that their injuries, usually in  the hand region, were due to repetitive movements, constrained  postures and general mental stress.   By the middle of the twentieth century, injuries, particularly to  tendons and their surroundings were generally recognized and  traced to repetitive efforts (Tichauer, 1973).  In 1960, the International Labor Office recognized repetition strain  injury as an occupational disease (ILO, 1960).
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Peres (1961), Ferguson (1971), Feldman  et al  (1983) and Putz- Anderson (1988) described a wide variety of health complaints  in the musculoskeletal apparatus of people  Chatterjee (1987) provided a review of the developing  recognition of repetitive strain injuries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1992 noted that cumulative  trauma disorders have tripled since 1984.  The nature of our  industry has changed and some 20% of the work force is at risk  for hand problems alone
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Possible Causes of CTD Unnatural joint posture Forceful application through joints (A hand force of 39.2 N or   more) Scraping, painting Repetition of activity (less than 30 seconds) Garment sewing, typing, manual packaging, wiring, coil winding Individual factors Age Gender Acute trauma  Chronic disease Use of birth control pills  circumstances of pregnancy Menopause Others Vibration Cold
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2011 for the course ECON Econ203 taught by Professor Majdabpadawnan during the Spring '11 term at University of Maribor.

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6.ERGO-CTDPIC - ERGONOMICS CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS...

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