Justice-2 - Justice­II Justice­II Last Week: Justice as...

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Unformatted text preview: Justice­II Justice­II Last Week: Justice as Fairness Justice as Capability This Week: Justice as Complex Equality Justice as Democracy Michael Walzer Michael Walzer facts about ‘distributive’ justice facts about ‘distributive’ justice Multiplicity of: i) primary goods ii) criteria iii) media of exchange iv) agents of distribution v) mechanisms or procedures of distribution How can you have a unified theory of How can you have a unified theory of justice, then? What it will not: ­offer a particular decision rule ­offer a particular set of primary goods ­ignore the “social meanings” of goods So: Walzer’s theory will preserve the multiplicity of the spheres if justice two features of (most) views of two features of (most) views of justice Dominance A good is dominant if it can be converted into a wide range of other goods (e.g., gold, water, money, technology, beauty, military power, land, charisma, religious authority, prestige) Monopoly Whenever a single individual or group successfully holds the dominant good against all rivals (aristocracy, church, ağa). Monopoly can be secured by ideology, military power or meritocracy Simple Equality: Dominance of a particular social Simple Equality good (such as money) but no monopoly This condition is unstable because: ­different people will do different things with their share and so initial state of equality will disappear ­the initial state can be restored only by the state which may then turn into an object of competitive struggle: struggle for power Complex Equality Complex Equality “imagine a society in which different social goods are monopolistically held, but in which no social good is generally convertible… there will be many small inequalities, but inequality will not be multiplied through the conversion process” “..if the unnatural and illegitimate conversions are abolished, the autonomy of the spheres of justice would be established” Blaise Pascal (1623­1662) Blaise “there are different companies, ­the strong, the handsome, the intelligent, the devout­ and each man reigns in his own, not elsewhere…. We owe different duties to different qualities: love is the proper response to charm, fear to strength, and belief to learning examples of spheres of justice: examples of spheres of justice: Free exchange Desert (merit or qualification) Need Iris Young Iris Young “we find ourselves positioned, thrown into the structured field of class, gender, race, nationality, religion, and so on, and we have no choice but to deal with this situation” Politics of Difference: Politics of Difference: “social movements that make the political claim that groups suffer oppression and disadvantage on account of cultural or structural social positions with which they are associated. To combat dominant stereotypes that construct members of such groups as despised or devalued Others, these movements have expressed uniquely situated understandings of members of society as arising from heir group position” ‘politics of difference’ is not ‘identity politics’ because: i) Groups often emerge as a result of oppression and discrimination, and not from a spontaneous will to unite ii) Group affiliation is not a fixed and unchanging type of identity iii) Not necessarily the very same interests iv) “Intersectionality” of the human self v) “Social perspective” that binds people Group Difference as a Deliberative Group Difference as a Deliberative Resource Democratic process as public deliberation to “resolve conflicts and solve collective problems” (this is the common good) Each group is exposed to a plurality of social perspectives Spirit of openness and mutual accountability are conditions of transformative deliberation ...
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