1. Ladrones Island The Mariana Islands are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east. They lie south-southeast of Japan, west-southwest of Hawaii, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines, demarcating the Philippine Sea's eastern limit. They are found in the northern part of the western Oceanic sub-region of Micronesia, and are politically divided into two jurisdictions of the United States: the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands and, at the southern end of the chain, the territory of Guam. The islands were named after the influential Spanish queen Mariana of Austria following their colonization in the 17th century. 2. Doctrina Christiana There is some controversy about which of the versions is the first printed book in Spanish Philippines, with some scholars believing that the Chinese-language version titled Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China, compuesta por los padres ministros de los Sangleyes, de la Orden de Sancto Domingo. Con licencia, por Keng yong, China, en el parian de Manila 3. Maharlika The Maharlika (meaning freeman or freedman) were the feudal warrior class in ancient Tagalog society in Luzon, the Philippines. The Spanish translated the name as Hidalgos (or libres). They belonged to the lower nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, however, the term has come to mean "royal nobility", which was actually restricted to the hereditary Maginoo class. 4. Kartilya ng Katipunan The Kartilya ng Katipunan (English: Primer of the Katipunan) served as the guidebook for new members of the organization, which laid out the group's rules and principles. The first edition of the Kartilya was written by Emilio Jacinto. Andrés Bonifacio later wrote a revised Decalogue. The Decalogue, originally titled Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B. (Duties of the Sons of the People), was never published because Bonifacio believed that Jacinto's Kartilya was superior to what he had made. 5. Antonio Pigafetta Antonio Pigafetta; c. 1491 –c. 1531) was a Venetian scholar and explorer. He joined the expedition to the Spice Islands led by explorer Ferdinand Magellan under the flag of King Charles I of Spain and, after Magellan's death in the Philippines, the subsequent voyage around the world. During the expedition, he served as Magellan's assistant and kept an accurate journal which later assisted him in translating the Cebuano language. It is the first recorded document concerning the language.