Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic

Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic - below can represent a...

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Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Polar and ionic molecules have positive and negative charges and are therefore attracted to water molecules because water molecules are also polar. They are said to be hydrophilic because they interact with (dissolve in) water by forming hydrogen bonds. Nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic (means "water fearing"). They do not dissolve in water. Nonpolar molecules are hydrophobic. Polar and ionic molecules are hydrophilic. Portions of large molecules may be hydrophobic and other portions of the same molecule may be hydrophilic. Functional Groups Organic molecules may have functional groups attached. A functional group is a group of atoms of a particular arrangement that gives the entire molecule certain characteristics. Functional groups are named according to the composition of the group. For example, COOH is a carboxyl group. Organic chemists use the letter "R" to indicate an organic molecule. For example, the diagram
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Unformatted text preview: below can represent a carboxylic acid. The "R" can be any organic molecule. Some functional groups are polar and others can ionize . For example, if the hydrogen ion is removed from the COOH group, the oxygen will retain both of the electrons it shared with the hydrogen and will have a negative charge. The hydrogen that is removed leaves behind its electron and is now a hydrogen ion (proton). If polar or ionizing functional groups are attached to hydrophobic molecules, the molecule may become hydrophilic due to the functional group. Some ionizing functional groups are: -COOH, -OH, -CO, and -NH 2 . Some important functional groups are shown below. Name Structure Non-ionized Ionized Hydroxyl Carboxyl Amino Phosphate Sulfhydryl Aldehyde Ketone...
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