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Ionic Bonding - electrons becomes positively charged and...

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Ionic Bonding Atoms with unfilled outer shells may transfer electrons from one to another. The transfer enables the atoms to have complete outer shells. A sodium atom (Na) and a chlorine atom (Cl) are shown below. A single circle represents the nucleus (protons and neutrons) of the atoms. Dots represent the electrons. The sodium atom has a total of 11 electrons and one electron in its outer shell. Chlorine has a total of 17 electrons with seven in its outer shell. From this, we can see that the atomic number (number of protons) of sodium is 11 because the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons. Refer to the periodic table to verify that the atomic number of sodium is 11. When sodium chloride (NaCl) is formed, one electron from sodium is transferred to chlorine. Atoms are neutral. When an atom transfers electrons to another, the atom that loses one or more
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Unformatted text preview: electrons becomes positively charged and the atom that gains one or more electrons becomes negatively charged. These charged particles are called ions . Positively charged ions are cations . Negatively charged ions are anions . Ions have a charge and are written with a plus (+) or a minus (-) sign. For example, calcium loses two electrons to form a calcium ion. The chemical symbol for a calcium ion is therefore Ca ++ or Ca +2 . The ions in a compound are attracted to each other due to opposite charges. The attraction is called an ionic bond . The electrical attraction between sodium ions (+) and chloride ions (-) produces the regular arrangement diagramed below. The crystalline structure of sodium chloride discussed above can be seen in the photograph below. Ionic bonds are weak and the ions can be separated in water (discussed later)....
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