Karyotypes - Karyotypes Karyotypes are prepared using cells...

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Karyotypes Karyotypes are prepared using cells from amniocentesis, chorionic villi sampling, or white blood cells. Cells are photographed while dividing. cells are normally stained so that banding patterns appear on the chromosomes. The bands make it easier to identify the chromosomes. Banding patterns are not visible in the photograph below due to the staining technique. Pictures of the chromosomes are cut out and arranged in pairs according to size and banding patterns. Karyotypes can be used to determine if there is an abnormality in chromosome number or structure. Nondisjunction Nondisjunction occurs when chromosomes fail to "disjoin" during meiosis or mitosis. Meiosis Metaphase I
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Anaphase I Telophase I
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Prophase II Meiosis II and Mitosis The diagrams below show nondisjunction during mitosis in a hypothetical species with 2N=8 chromosomes. Metaphase
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Anaphase Telophase
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G 1 Interphase The probability of nondisjunction increases with age. It increases rapidly after age 35 years in women and after 55 years in men.
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