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Major Kinds of Cells - receptors which can detect the...

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Major Kinds of Cells Prokaryotic Cells Bacteria are prokaryotes. Their cells are very small and very simple. They will be discussed later. Chapter on prokaryotes Eukaryotic cells All other cells are eukaryotic cells. These include protists, fungi, plants, and animals. The diagram below shows evolutionary relationships between bacteria, archaea, and the four kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms. Eukaryotic Cells Cells contain structures called organelles . The structure and function of the major organelles found in eukaryotic cells are described below. Plasma membrane All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane. It separates the contents of the cell from its environment and regulates the passage of molecules into and out of the cell. The membrane contains proteins that have a variety of functions. For example, some proteins are
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Unformatted text preview: receptors which can detect the presence of certain kinds of molecules in the surrounding fluids. The function of membrane proteins will be discussed in more detail in the chapter on membranes. An actively metabolizing cell needs a large surface area. Cells are limited in size because larger cells have a smaller surface to volume ratio. Cells that are specialized for absorption (ex: intestinal cells) have folds in the plasma membrane called microvilli that increase the surface area. Pseudopodia are temporary extensions of the plasma membrane used for movement or to engulf particles. Pseudopodia can be seen in the Amoeba below....
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