Orbitals - Orbitals It is convenient to draw electrons as...

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Orbitals It is convenient to draw electrons as occupying a circular space around the nucleus. In reality, electrons do not move around the nucleus in circles. Pairs of electrons occupy spaces called orbitals. An orbital can hold 2 electrons. The first shell has one spherical orbital called the 1s orbital. The second shell has 4 orbitals. One is spherical (called 2s) and the other three are dumbbell-shaped and at right angles to each other. These are referred to as 2p orbitals. The arrangement of three dumbbell-shaped orbitals can be in the model shown below. The third and higher shells have s and p orbitals as well as other kinds of orbitals. The Outer Shell The inner shells of atoms are filled with the maximum number of electrons but the outer shells may or may not be filled. . An atom with only one shell requires two electrons to complete its outer shell. Atoms with more than one shell require 8 electrons to complete their outer shells. Periodic Table of the Elements
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Orbitals - Orbitals It is convenient to draw electrons as...

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