Oxidation an - ++ ). The cofactors bind to the enzyme and...

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Oxidation an d Reduction Reactions Oxidation is the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms . Oxidation reactions release energy . Reduction is gain of electrons or hydrogen atoms and is associated with a gain of energy. Oxidation and reduction occur together. When a molecule is oxidized, another must be reduced. The circle in the middle diagram below represents an electron carrier. It is capable of removing electrons or hydrogen atoms (oxidizing) from molecules and giving them to others (reducing them). Coenzymes Many enzymes require a cofactor to assist in the reaction. These "assistants" are nonprotein and may be metal ions such as magnesium (Mg ++ ), potassium (K + ), and calcium (Ca
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Unformatted text preview: ++ ). The cofactors bind to the enzyme and participate in the reaction by removing electrons, protons , or chemical groups from the substrate . Cofactors that are organic molecules are coenzymes . In oxidation-reduction reactions , coenzymes often remove electrons from the substrate and pass them to other molecules. Often the electron is added to a proton to form a hydrogen atom before it is passed. In this way, coenzymes serve to carry energy in the form of electrons (or hydrogen atoms) from one compound to another. Vitamins are small organic molecules required in trace amounts. They usually act as coenzymes or precursors to coenzymes....
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Oxidation an - ++ ). The cofactors bind to the enzyme and...

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