Plasmids - base sequence For example EcoRI always cuts DNA...

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Plasmids The host bacterium takes up the plasmid, which includes the foreign gene. When the bacteria reproduces, the plasmids are also reproduced. The gene is cloned . Shuttle vectors are plasmids that are capable of existing in several different species. They are useful when transferring genes to multicellular organisms. Viruses Viruses are the vectors of choice for animal cells. They can accept larger amounts of DNA than plasmids. When the virus reproduces within the animal cell, it also reproduces the foreign gene that it carries. The gene is therefore cloned . The DNA of some retroviruses becomes integrated into the host chromosome. Restriction enzymes Restriction enzymes were discovered in bacteria. Bacteria use them as a defense mechanism to cut up the DNA of viruses or other bacteria. Hundreds of different restriction enzymes have been isolated. Each one cuts DNA at a specific
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Unformatted text preview: base sequence. For example, EcoRI always cuts DNA at GAATTC as indicated below. The sequence GAATTC appears three times in the DNA strand below. As a result, the strand is cut into four pieces. Other restriction enzymes cut at different sites, some examples are listed below. Enzyme Cutting Site Bam HI GGATCC Hae III GGCC Pst I CTGCAG Hinf I GANTC Sticky Ends Fragments of DNA that has been cut with restriction enzymes have unpaired nucleotides at the ends called sticky ends . All of the fragments will have the same sticky ends. The sticky ends have complimentary bases, so they could rejoin. If the vector and the gene to be cloned are both cut with the same restriction enzyme, they will both have complimentary sticky ends....
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Plasmids - base sequence For example EcoRI always cuts DNA...

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