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Unformatted text preview: fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods are composed of chitin. Cellulose is composed of beta-glucose monomers; starch and glycogen are composed of alpha-glucose. The bond orientation between the glucose subunits of starch and glycogen allows the polymers to form compact spirals. The monomers of cellulose and chitin are bonded together in such a way that the molecule is straight and unbranched. The molecule remains straight because every other glucose is twisted to an upside-down position compared to the two monomers on each side. Cellulose fibers are composed of long parallel chains of these molecules. The chains are attached to each other by hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. Below: Cellulose The glucose monomers of chitin (N-acetyl glucosamine) have a side chain containing nitrogen. Cotton and wood are composed mostly of cellulose. They are the remains of plant cell walls....
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