Polysaccharides - fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods...

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Polysaccharides Monosaccharides may be bonded together to form long chains called polysaccharides. Starch and Glycogen Starch and glycogen are polysaccharides that function to store energy. They are composed of glucose monomers bonded together producing long chains. Animals store extra carbohydrates as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Between meals, the liver breaks down glycogen to glucose in order to keep the concentration of glucoses in the blood stable. After meals, as glucose levels in the blood rise, it is removed from and stored as glycogen. Plants produce starch to store carbohydrates. Amylopectin is a form of starch that is very similar to glycogen. It is branched but glycogen has more branches. Amylose is a form of starch that is unbranched. Below: Glycogen or Starch Cellulose and Chitin Cellulose and Chitin are polysaccharides that function to support and protect the organism. The cell walls of plants are composed of cellulose. The cell walls of
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Unformatted text preview: fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods are composed of chitin. Cellulose is composed of beta-glucose monomers; starch and glycogen are composed of alpha-glucose. The bond orientation between the glucose subunits of starch and glycogen allows the polymers to form compact spirals. The monomers of cellulose and chitin are bonded together in such a way that the molecule is straight and unbranched. The molecule remains straight because every other glucose is twisted to an upside-down position compared to the two monomers on each side. Cellulose fibers are composed of long parallel chains of these molecules. The chains are attached to each other by hydrogen bonds between the hydroxyl groups of adjacent molecules. Below: Cellulose The glucose monomers of chitin (N-acetyl glucosamine) have a side chain containing nitrogen. Cotton and wood are composed mostly of cellulose. They are the remains of plant cell walls....
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2011 for the course BIO BSC1010 taught by Professor Gwenhauner during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Polysaccharides - fungi and the exoskeleton of arthropods...

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