Substrate - been cut lengthwise to reveal the interior. A...

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Substrate-Level Phosphorylati on The formation of ATP in the cytoplasm is substrate-level phosphorylation . Energy from a high-energy substrate is used to transfer a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP. Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Most ATP is produced in the mitochondrion by a process that involves pumping hydrogen ions (protons) into the intermembrane space .
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Energy is required to pump hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space. The enzyme ATP synthase is able to use the energy of this osmotic gradient to produce ATP as the hydrogen ions move by osmosis back into the matrix of the mitochondrion. Photophosphorylation Photophosphorylation occurs in the chloroplast. The diagram below shows a chloroplast that has
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Unformatted text preview: been cut lengthwise to reveal the interior. A hydrogen ion gradient is also used to produce ATP in the chloroplast (diagram below). In this case, sunlight provides energy to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid . The energy of their movement back into the stroma by osmotic pressure is used to produce ATP. The enzyme that uses a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to phosphorylate ADP is ATP synthase . Photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation (discussed above) both use an osmotic concentration gradient of hydrogen ions to produce ATP, therefore these two processes are often referred to as chemiosmosis....
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2011 for the course BIO BSC1010 taught by Professor Gwenhauner during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Substrate - been cut lengthwise to reveal the interior. A...

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