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Translocation - and the oldest individuals are found at the...

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Translocation Chromosomes that break usually rejoin at the same place but sometimes the broken ends rejoin in different places. Translocation is the movement of a chromosome or part of a chromosome to another (nonhomologous) chromosome. Inversion A segment of a chromosome may become turned around forming an inversion. This can cause altered gene activity, a loss of crossing-over, or a duplication/deletion if crossing- over does occur. Pedigrees It is often easy to visualize relationships within an extended family by using symbols to represent people and relationships. A family tree which uses these symbols is called a pedigree. A sample pedigree is below. In a pedigree, squares represent males and circles represent females. Horizontal lines connecting a male and female represent mating. Vertical lines extending downward from a couple represent their children. Subsequent generations are therefore written underneath the parental generations
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Unformatted text preview: and the oldest individuals are found at the top of the pedigree. If the purpose of a pedigree is to analyze the pattern of inheritance of a particular trait, it is customary to shade in the symbol of all individuals that possess this trait. In the pedigree above, the grandparents had two children, a son and a daughter. The son had the trait in question. One of his four children also had the trait. Autosomal Recessive Characteristics of autosomal recessive inheritance It often skips generations; children that have the trait can have parents that do not. Heterozygotes (carriers) do not have the trait. People with the trait have two copies of the genes. If both parents are have the trait, all offspring will. Males and females are affected equally. Inbreeding results in a greater-than-expected number of rare autosomal recessive phenotypes....
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