Vaccines Vaccines were previously made by killing or weakening a virus or bacteria and then injecting it. Its surface proteins caused an immune reaction. Occasionally, these vaccines would make people ill. Using biotechnology, some of the proteins of the disease organism can be made by cloning the gene that codes for them. These proteins are sufficient to stimulate the immune system but are incapable of causing an infection. Vaccines for hepatitis B and human papilloma virus (Gardasil) are now produced using biotechnology. Vaccines for chlamydia, malaria, influenza, and HIV are being developed. Vaccines for hoof-and-mouth disease and scours (a form of dysentery) have been developed for farm animals. Other Uses of Recombinant Bacteria Bacteria have been produced that inhibit the formation of ice crystals. These bacteria have been released onto crop plants to protect them from frost damage. A bacteria species that normally colonize corn roots have been given a gene that enables it to
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