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Viruses - has allowed much of the biotechnology development...

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Viruses Viruses may serve as vectors for transferring DNA into eukaryotic cells. After the DNA enters the cell, it must become inserted into the host chromosome. Other Methods of Delivering DNA Electroporation involves using an electric current to create pores in the cell wall and plasma membrane for DNA to enter. It is difficult to create transgenic plants because the cell wall prevents entry of DNA. One solution is to remove the cell wall. These cells (called protoplasts) are then placed in a liquid with foreign DNA. Electroporation is used to make small, temporary holes in the membrane so DNA can pass in. A gene gun propels small gold pellets coated with DNA. The pellets penetrate the cell wall and plasma membrane and enter the cell to deliver their DNA. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) The polymerase chain reaction can be used to make many copies of small pieces of DNA. Because techniques in biotechnology usually require large amounts of DNA (many copies), PCR
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Unformatted text preview: has allowed much of the biotechnology development that we have seen in recent years. Materials and Procedure Materials needed The procedure requires primers, DNA polymerase, and nucleotides. Primers are short chains of about 20 nucleotides that are complimentary to a region in the DNA to be amplified. They are needed because the enzyme that copies the DNA (DNA polymerase) cannot start the process unless it has already been started. DNA polymerase from the thermophile Thermus aquaticus is used because this species thrives at temperatures that are near boiling. It's DNA polymerase (called Taq polymerase) is stable at relatively high temperatures and functions optimally at 70 degrees C. This is important because high temperatures will be used to separate the strands of the double helix. Nucleotides are needed because DNA is composed of nucleotide "building blocks"....
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