Why Divide - This type of cell division allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue Meiosis Meiosis produces daughter cells

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Why Divide? Single-celled organisms divide to reproduce. Cell division in multicellular organisms enables the organism to grow larger while the cells remain small. A large surface:volume ratio is due to small cell size. Organisms with many cells can have cells which are specialized for different functions and tasks. For example, red blood cells are specialized for carrying oxygen but neurons (nervous tissue) are specialized for conducting signals from one cell to another. Some cells of multicellular organisms must divide to produce sex cells (gametes). Mitosis Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. If the parent cell is haploid (N), then the daughter cells will be haploid. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cells will also be diploid. N N 2N 2N
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Unformatted text preview: This type of cell division allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue. Meiosis Meiosis produces daughter cells that have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. 2N → N Meiosis enables organisms to reproduce sexually . Gametes (sperm and eggs) are haploid. Meiosis is necessary in sexually-reproducing organisms because the fusion of two gametes (fertilization) doubles the number of chromosomes. Meiosis involves two divisions producing a total of four daughter cells. Click here to go to the chapter on meiosis. Chromosome Structure and Replication A chromatid is a single DNA molecule. Double-stranded chromosomes have two chromatids; normally, each one is identical to the other. The point where the two chromatids are attached is called the centromere ....
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This note was uploaded on 12/15/2011 for the course BIO BSC1010 taught by Professor Gwenhauner during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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