Among the Arabs and Persians were great calculators and mathematicians who worked to improve the cosmological explanation of astronomical measurements. For example, Nasir al-din al-Tusi at Maragha produced a particularly innovative addition to Ptolemy's circular motions. The "Tusi couple" calculates a linear motion from a combination of uniform circular motions. In his revolutionary work on the solar system published in 1543, Copernicus used a strikingly similar device. Also, Copernicus used a model for the Moon's motion identical to one devised two centuries earlier by the astronomer Ibn al-Shatir in Damascus. Copernicus cited the works of Islamic astronomers and certainly learned from them. Historians are still trying to determine the full extent of his intellectual debt. Revolutions in science
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