To many philosophical minds,the steady-state universe proposed by Hoyle, Bondi and Gold had a major advantage over the big-bang expanding universe. In their universe the overall density was kept always the same by the continuous creation of matter. In the big-bang universe with its radically changing density, various physical laws might not apply the same way at all times. It would be impossible to extrapolate with confidence from the present back to the super-dense origin of the universe. Tommy Gold (left) with Hermann Bondi (center) and Fred Hoyle (right), circa 1960.Steady-state theory also had an observational advantage over big-bang theory in 1948. The rate of expansion then observed, when calculated backward to an initial big bang, gave an age for the universe of only a few billion years—well below the known age of the solar system! That was certainly an
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