Atmosphere - Atmosphere Auroral glows in Io's upper...

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Atmosphere Auroral glows in Io's upper atmosphere. Different colors represent emission from different components of the atmosphere (green comes from emitting sodium, red from emitting oxygen, and blue from emitting volcanic gases like sulfur dioxide). Image taken while Io was in eclipse. Io has an extremely thin atmosphere consisting mainly of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), with minor constituents including sulfur monoxide (SO), sodium chloride (NaCl), and atomic sulfur and oxygen . [89] The atmosphere has significant variations in density and temperature with time of day, latitude, volcanic activity, and surface frost abundance. The maximum atmospheric pressure on Io ranges from 3.3 × 10 −5 to 3 × 10 −4 pascals (Pa) or 0.3 to 3 nbar , spatially seen on Io's anti- Jupiter hemisphere and along the equator, and temporally in the early afternoon when the temperature of surface frost peaks. [89] [90] [91] Localized peaks at volcanic plumes have also been seen, with pressures of 5 × 10 −4 to 40 × 10 −4 Pa (5 to 40 nbar). [36]
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Atmosphere - Atmosphere Auroral glows in Io's upper...

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