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Galaxy Origin1 - clusters and clusters into superclusters...

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Galaxy Origins I Zwicky 18 is a nearby dwarf galaxy that started forming stars only 500 million to one billion years ago. It may be an example of what the galaxies were like over 12 billion years ago. How this galaxy remained in an embryonic state for almost the entire history of the universe is unknown. Is it an example of a "dark galaxy"---a dark matter clump with cold primeval hydrogen and helium gas---in which the gas only now got compressed enough to form stars? One variation of the "botton-up" galaxy formation model says that such "dark galaxies" are very numerous but very hard to see. The "bottom-up" model builds galaxies from the merging of smaller clumps about the size of a million solar masses (the sizes of the globular clusters). These clumps would have been able to start collapsing when the universe was still very young. Then galaxies would be drawn into
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Unformatted text preview: clusters and clusters into superclusters by their mutual gravity. This model predicts that there should be many more small galaxies than large galaxies---that is observed to be true. The dwarf irregular galaxies may be from cloud fragments that did not get incorporated into larger galaxies. Also, the galaxy clusters and superclusters should still be in the process of forming---observations suggest this to be true, as well. The radio galaxy MRC 1138-262, also called the "Spiderweb Galaxy" is a large galaxy in the making. At 10.6 billion light years away, we see it in the process of forming only 3 billion years after the Big Bang. Note the small, thin "tadpole" and "chain" galaxies that are merging together to create a giant galaxy....
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