GalileoThere are no forces acting on the ball perpendicular to the oscillation plane, so the oscillation direction in space does not change. However, it does rotate relative tothe Earth's surface because the Earth is rotating under the swinging pendulum. The pendulum appears to rotate westward with a period that depends on the latitude: rotation period = (23h56m)/sin(latitude), where ``sin'' is the trigonometric sine function. The coriolis effect and the Foucault pendulum are both based on Galileo's discovery that an object's motion (speed and/or direction) are changed onlyif there is a force acting on it. Galileo is often considered the father of modern science because his ideas were not derived from thought and reason alone. He used the guidance of nature (experiments). This marked a revolutionary change in science---observational experience became the key method for discovering nature's rules. His arguments for the heliocentric model and the critical role of objective observation of nature in science got him into trouble with the Church. The struggle
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