Mass - Massive stars have greater gravitational compression...

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Mass-Luminosity Relation Explained The mass-luminosity relation for 192 stars in double-lined spectroscopic binary systems. Observations of thousands of main sequence stars show that there is definite relationship between their mass and their luminosity. The more massive main sequence stars are hotter and more luminous than the low-mass main sequence stars. Furthermore, the luminosity depends on the mass raised to a power that is between three and four (Luminosity ~ Mass p , where p is between 3 & 4). This means that even a slight difference in the mass among stars produces a large difference in their luminosities. For example, an O-type star can be only 20 times more massive than the Sun, but have a luminosity about 10,000 times as much as the Sun. Putting together the principle of hydrostatic equilibrium and the sensitivity of nuclear reaction rates to temperature, you can easily explain why.
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Unformatted text preview: Massive stars have greater gravitational compression in their cores because of the larger weight of the overlying layers than that found in low-mass stars. The massive stars need greater thermal and radiation pressure pushing outward to balance the greater gravitational compression. The greater thermal pressure is provided by the higher temperatures in the massive star's core than those found in low-mass stars. Massive stars need higher core temperatures to be stable! The nuclear reaction rate is very sensitive to temperature so that even a slight increase in temperature makes the nuclear reactions occur at a MUCH higher rate. This means that a star's luminosity increases a lot if the temperature is higher. This also means that a slight increase in the mass of the star produces a large increase in the star's luminosity....
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