Observations and measurement from Earth Venus transits the face of the Sun on June 8, 2004, providing valuable information on the upper atmosphere through spectroscopic measurements from Earth In 1761, Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov observed a ring of light surrounding Venus as it transited the sun and concluded that Venus has an atmosphere.   In 1940, Rupert Wildt calculated that the amount of CO 2 in the Venusian atmosphere would raise surface temperature above the boiling point for water.  This was confirmed when Mariner 2 made radiometer measurements of the temperature in 1962. In 1967, Venera 4 confirmed that the atmosphere consisted primarily of carbon dioxide.  The upper atmosphere of Venus can be measured from Earth when the planet crosses the sun in a rare event known as a solar transit . The last solar transit of Venus occurred in 2004. Using quantitative astronomical spectroscopy , scientists were able to analyze sunlight that passed through the planet's atmosphere to reveal chemicals within it. As the technique to analyze light to
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