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Remote sensing Techniques
That A<1 is the response to solar heating  (1A) must be reemitted in the infrared as the
thermal flux from the body.
To measure the total flux from a body at all angles is not so easy in practice. If we define the
phase angle, phi, as the angle formed by the path sunsatelliteobserver, then we see we will be
restricted for all bodies in orbit beyond Earth's to a small range of angles  the further out the
more restricted. Thus the range of observable phase angles at Uranus is only +/ 3 degrees!
Given that the observed flux at phase angle phi is F
phi
, the phase integral is definethe phase
integral is defined as:
A Lambert surface is a diffuse perfect reflector at all wavelengths. Then p, the geometric albedo
is defined as:
p
=
amount of scattered radiation
____________________________
amount of radn. from a Lambert body
where the actual and Lambert surface have the same crosssectional area. Then A=pq.
A rough surface is one that multiply scatters light. A rough dark surface will have welldefined
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 Fall '10
 EmilyHoward
 Astronomy

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