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Temperature - Temperature The temperature of a material is...

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Temperature The temperature of a material is a measure of the average kinetic (motion) energy of the molecules in the material. As the temperature increases, a solid turns into a gas when the particles are moving fast enough to break free of the chemical bonds that held them together. The particles in a hotter gas are moving quicker than those in a cooler gas of the same type. Using Newton's laws of motion, the relation between the speeds of the molecules and their temperature is found to be temperature = (gas molecule mass)×( average gas molecule speed) 2 / (3 k ), where k is a universal constant of nature called the ``Boltzmann constant''. Gas molecules of the same type and at the same temperature will have a spread of speeds---some moving quickly, some moving slower---so use the average speed. If you switch the temperature and velocity, you can derive the average gas molecule velocity = Sqrt [(3 k × temperature/(molecule mass))]. Remember that the mass here is the tiny mass of the gas particle, not the planet's mass. Since the mass is in the bottom of the fraction, the more
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