The Problem of Induction Science has the problem of induction: No matter how much evidence we have for a conclusion, the conclusion could still conceivably be false. The best we can say is that it is ``unlikely'' that our conclusion is false when we are using inductive reasoning. Here's an example: suppose there is a barrel filled with 100 apples and the first apple I pull out off the top is very rotten. Few would wager from this single apple that we know all the apples in the barrel are rotten. However, small amounts of evidence need not always be weak. A biologist might be willing on the basis of this one apple to wager that all of the apples are likely to be rotten, if other information were provided like what temperature the apples were stored, and for how long, because of her general knowledge of bacteria and their ability to spread rapidly. If we have some world view or paradigm (a framework of a general consensus of belief of how the world works), we can do a lot of hypothetical work with just a few observations. But without anything else to go on, concluding that all the apples are rotten from a single
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