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The structure of the - The structure of the surface and...

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The structure of the surface and boundary layer into the sun's "atmosphere": We see at the surface of the Sun a lot of structure. It is seen to be divided up into a complex ever- changing pattern of convection cells - "supergranulation". Some of the surface material breaks free of the surface and moves upwards. Often this is obviously under the control of magnetic fields that "organise" it in to magnetic arches or more complex structures. The rate of magnetic field emergence f of magnetic field emergence from the quiet regions of the Sun exceeds that of active regions (sunspot groups) though emerging active regions contribute to the large-scale magnetic structure. We know a fair amount about the morphology of the sunspots' associated magnetic field. Often sunspots are "paired" with the field lines joining one to the other:
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Other surface structure is seen either with no associated magnetic field, or organised along "open" field lines:
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