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Unformatted text preview: and v3 between 200250 km.  There may be an additional layer near 180 km. The maximum electron volume density (number of electrons in a unit of volume) 310 11 m 3 is reached in the v2 layer near the subsolar point .  The upper boundary of the ionosphereionopause is located at altitudes 220375 km and separates the plasma of the planetary origin from that of the induced magnetosphere .   The main ionic species in the v1 and v2 layers is O 2 + ion , whereas the v3 layer consists of O + ions.  The ionospheric plasma is observed to be in motion; solar photoionization on the dayside, and ion recombination on the nightside, are the processes mainly responsible for accelerating the plasma to the observed velocities. The plasma flow appears to be sufficient to maintain the nightside ionosphere at or near the observed median level of ion densities...
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- Fall '10