Volcanis1 - Volcanism Active lava flows in volcanic region...

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Volcanism Active lava flows in volcanic region Tvashtar Paterae (blank region represents saturated areas in the original data). Images taken by Galileo in November 1999 and February 2000. The tidal heating produced by Io's forced orbital eccentricity has led the moon to become one of the most volcanically active worlds in the Solar System, with hundreds of volcanic centres and extensive lava flows . During a major eruption, lava flows tens or even hundreds of kilometres long can be produced, consisting mostly of basalt silicate lavas with either mafic or ultramafic (magnesium-rich) compositions. As a by-product of this activity, sulfur, sulfur dioxide gas and silicate pyroclastic material (like ash) are blown up to 200 km (120 mi) into space, producing large, umbrella-shaped plumes, painting the surrounding terrain in red, black, and white, and providing material for Io's patchy atmosphere and Jupiter's extensive magnetosphere. Io's surface is dotted with volcanic depressions known as paterae . [73] Paterae generally have flat floors bounded by steep walls. These features resemble terrestrial calderas , but it is unknown if they are produced through collapse over an emptied lava chamber like their terrestrial cousins. One hypothesis suggests that these features are produced through the exhumation of volcanic
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Volcanis1 - Volcanism Active lava flows in volcanic region...

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