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Evolutio2 - Evolution Within a billion years of a galaxy's...

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Evolution Within a billion years of a galaxy's formation, key structures begin to appear. Globular clusters , the central supermassive black hole, and a galactic bulge of metal-poor Population II stars form. The creation of a supermassive black hole appears to play a key role in actively regulating the growth of galaxies by limiting the total amount of additional matter added. [88] During this early epoch, galaxies undergo a major burst of star formation. [89] During the following two billion years, the accumulated matter settles into a galactic disc . [90] A galaxy will continue to absorb infalling material from high-velocity clouds and dwarf galaxies throughout its life. [91] This matter is mostly hydrogen and helium. The cycle of stellar birth and death slowly increases the abundance of heavy elements, eventually allowing the formation of planets . [92] The evolution of galaxies can be significantly affected by interactions and collisions. Mergers of
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