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EPIDEMIOLOGYEpidemiology PaperBrenna C. SimonGrand Canyon University: NRS428VNJuly 7, 2019 1
EPIDEMIOLOGYEpidemiology PaperBy definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global) (CDC, 2016). The information received from these studies are used to prevent illnesses that may arise and manage diseases that have already developed. Influenza is a communicable disease. A communicable disease is an illness that may be caused by a virus or bacteria and is spread from person to person via contact with bodily fluids, blood, contaminated objects, insect bites, or even through the air. The chain of infection also known as the communicable disease chain describes the process required for the transmission of disease. The process starts with an agent such as a microbe living in a reservoir such as an animal. The agent then exits the body through blood, feces, or mucous. The agent leaves the body via a mode of transmission such as a sneeze or cough. Once the agent is out, it is received by the susceptible host through direct or indirect contact through the nose, mouth, or other body orifices. An infection will not occur is there is a break in the chain.This paper will define influenza, how it is caused, including the symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and demographic interest. Secondly, the social determinants of health and factors that contribute to developing influenza will be described. Thirdly, the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to influenza and any special considerations for the community will be explained. Fourthly, the role of the community health nurse and why demographic data is necessary to the health community will be addressed. Fifthly, a national organization that addresses influenza and how this organization contributes to resolving the 2
EPIDEMIOLOGYimpact of the disease will be identified. Lastly, a global implication of influenza and how it is addressed in other countries will be examined. Influenza Influenza (Flu) is not just a common cold. Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and sometimes the lungs (CDC, 2018). Not only is the flu highly contagious but it can also be life threatening. People with lung diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are at an increased risk of developing complications from the illness. There are many symptoms of influenza such as, a cough, sore throat, body aches, joint pain, headaches, fatigue, nasal congestion, runny nose, chills, and a fever. The flu is an airborne virus, therefore when someone coughs, sneezes, or talks, droplets of the virus exit their body and get dispersed into the air. When this is done, it is possible for someone nearby to be infected with droplets of the virus that may have landed in their mouth or on their mucous membranes. The illness may also be spread by direct contact with