Possible water ocean In late 2008, scientists observed water vapor spewing from Enceladus's surface. This could indicate the presence of liquid water, which might also make it possible for Enceladus to support life.  Candice Hansen,  a scientist with NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab , headed up a research team on the plumes after they were found to be moving at ~2,189 kilometers per hour (1,360 miles per hour). Since that speed is difficult to attain unless liquids are involved, they decided to investigate the compositions of the plumes.  Eventually it was discovered that in the E-ring about 6% of particles contain 0.5–2% of sodium salts by mass, which is a significant amount. In the parts of the plume close to Enceladus the fraction of "salty" particles increases to 70% by number and >99% by mass. Such particles presumably are frozen spray from the salty underground ocean. On the other hand, the small salt-poor particles form by homogenous nucleation directly from the gas phase. The sources of salty
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