Eonothem Phanerozoic0000

Eonothem Phanerozoic0000 - 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic...

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Unformatted text preview: 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic Early Paleozoic : T he Cambrian Revolut ion early Paleozoic lif e Reading Assignment : Chapt ers 9, and 10 Early Paleozoic Cont ent s (unit t opic s) Unit (Chapt er) Plan: Ac t ivit ies (t hings you must do) Abilit ies Ac quired (what you learned) Bac k t o Course Syllabus | | Bac k t o Course Plan (weekly sc hedule) Visit t his web sit e: UCMP t o review t he Hist ory of Lif e of t his int erval of t ime C ontents (course topics): Phanero oic Eonothem The Paleo oic Erathem: Lower, Middle and Upper Paleo oic T he Lower Paleozoic Chronst rat igraphic Divisions: Cambrian Syst em | | Ordovic ian Syst em T he Cambrian Syst em Biologic al F eat ures: T he Evolut ionary Proc esses of Phanerozoic Biot a; F rom Eukaryot es t o Animalia T he c onc ept of ext inc t ion | | Cambrian Explosion: What is t he Cambrian Explosion? Paleoec ology: | | T ypes of marine environment s Signif ic ant biologic al event s in t he Cambrian: T he Burgess Shale F auna | | T he evolut ion of skelet ons in many animal groups T he T ommot ian F auna | | F irst Reef s: Arc haeoc yat hids Geologic al f eat ures: Paleogeography | | Landmasses: Gondwanaland | | Balt ic a | | Siberia | | Laurent ia Paleoent ologic al f eat ures: Divisions of t ime Lagerst t t en www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 1/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic F ossil t ypes: T he f irst met azoans T he f irst shelly f aunas Cambrian mac rof aunas T he Invert ebrat es: Porif era Mollusc a Brac hiopoda Onyc hophora T ardigrada Art hropoda Priapulida Ec hinodremat a Annelida Hemic hordat a Chordat a T he Ordovic ian Syst em Biologic al F eat ures: T he great radiat ion Coral- st rome reef s Lower Ordovic ian animals: f loat ers and swimmers Predat rors: Animals as a c ause of st romat olit e dec line Mass ext inc t ion of warm- wat er t axa Geologic al f eat ures: Cont inent al glac iat ion Paleoent ologic al f eat ures: Plant s invade land? Marine sedimet s heavily burrowes Summary of Lower Paleozoic Event s Bac k t o Unit Plan Activ ities (things ou must do): Read Chapt ers nine and t en of your t ext book Review t he st ory of plat e t ec t onic s F or a more simplist ic model visit t his sit e <ht t p://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/t ryit /t ec t onic s> <ht t p://www.enc hant edlearning.c om/subjec t s/ast ronomy/planet s/eart h/Cont inent s.sht ml> Bac k t o Unit Plan Abilities Acquired (what ou learned): By t he end of t his c hapt er you should be able t o: Bac k t o Unit Plan Phanero oic Eonothem The Paleo oic Erathem Chronost rat igraphic Division of t he Paleozoic Erat herm Permian Syst em Pennsylvanian Carbonif erous Upper Subsyst em Mississippian Sy s t e m Eonot hem Erat hem Subsyst em Phanerozoic Paleozoic Devonian Syst em Middle Silurian Syst em Ordovic ian Syst em Lower Cambrian Syst em Phanero oic Eonothem: T his Eonot hem is of t en ref erred t o as t he t ine of "Visible Lif e". Organisms wit h skelet ons or hard shells www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 2/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic .T .T P M , C . ThePaleo oic Erathem: 543 to 248 m a T P E ( ) P E E 543 , :P .A " " , , , , .A 90% .R , P , .T , , , B , M T P N P Phanero oic, 300 .D ; .F - A , P , , A ' S , .L P . P , U .T , , M P S , P .F c oa l . , limestone W The Lower Paleo oic = C ambrian + Ordov ician S stems T P P E : C O .S C Summar of Lower Paleo oic Ev ents: 1.- I 543 438 2.- F 3.- O T F 4.- D A 5.- T L C 6.- R 7.- M C 8.- M L C 9.- M O 10.- F O 11.- E O 12.- M 13.- C O 14.- T ( ) U C :G S 15.- M 16.- P , . .. . 17.- E . The C ambrian S stem: I ): www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html R E C ,L U ,B , O W ( 3/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic T he Ca b ia i c ha ac e i ed b : (1) he f i ab da ec d f a i e if e; (2) "T he Age f T i bi e " 543 500 a - (3) T he Ca b ia E i f if e c c ; (4) a e i e ha de e ; (5) Ma a i e i e eb a e ( a i e aia i h i e a i ed he : he - f i h, ec hi de , i bi e , b ac hi d, , i ii ega i e ). F i e eb a e . Ea ie i i i e f i h; (6) i d c i a e; (7) he ec i e R di ia bega b ea i ae c ie ( ce de c e de - da a d a e ); (8) Ma e i c i f i bi e a d a i id a e d f Ca b ia (50% f a a i a f a i ie e e ic) bab d e g ac ia i . F P ec a b ia he Ca b ia he e e e c c ed: (1) T he ea ie h gic a e ide c e f if e a 3.5 bi i ea , hic h c e d f i f a i e (c ie f c a bac e ia ) a d i g e, dif f e e ia ed c e , P a e; (2) F 1.6 bi i ea he e i e ce ee he i d f i i g ga i , i he a i a f Ea e, i g e ce i h dif f e e ia ed c ei a d c e ga e e . A h gh e e e i g a a ge ea i c e i , he E a e ee i i g e ce c e agg ega e ; (3) I a he 1.4 bi i ea bef e c e, ic e a if e ade a a ea a c e i he f f he Ediac a a f a a ; (4) he e Ca b ia a i a a ea ed ab 550 i i e a ag f ed, ha i , he e a a a ge a i a ihc e bd a , i e ed he Ca b ia e i ; (5) I addi i he a a e h a 'e i ' he Ca b ia a ee he ad e fa de ef c i c e, i h ga i bei g ada ed f a a ge a ge f if e a egie . T he e i c de bi e be hic , e if a a a d b i g f a a a i e ac i g i h eac h he i c e c i ie . P eda i a a ea f ac i i g f d a a e a a ea a c e a hi i e. Wha aee e e a a e he Ca b ia ga i hic h di a ee i g bi a e b d a ad a e dage , a d hic h a ic a a e dif f ic a ig a de h a ( ee B ge Sha e e f a a ). I a , he Ca b ia f i ec d i dic a e a di i c de e ef i e ga i ga i c a ab e i h g a d ga i a i he e e - da a i a . T hi a id h ge e ic de e e a ed i he a e Pe ic a d a e- - e f i i hed a he e d f he Ea Ca b ia . T he de e e f f a a i he Ca b ia i d c e ed b f a a a e b age e e e ed b (1) he Ediac a a f a a, (2) he f i c e ac e f i , (3) he ea ie he f a a , a d (4) he e f he ic a Ca b ia ac f a a . I i a a i g ha hi a id e i ac e i a i e a f e ha 25 . ., a d he e i f he f i ha d- a a i a he e e c e f f he e e - da h a a e ic ed aieaf bab e ha 10 . . M ic e a if e e ed a a i c edib e e ic eed, a d f hi ea hi a f ga i a e i i e ed he "Ca b ia E i ", "E i ' Big Ba g." Ca b ia Mac f a a www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 4/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic T he Marine Environment in t he Cambrian The Ordov ician S stem: 505 t o 438 m a. T he Ordovic ian represent s t he t ime of marked evolut ionar radiat ion of lif e in t he seas whic h t ook plac e in t he miidle Ordovic ian. T he Ordovic ian lif e inc ludes: t he f irst f ishes, invert ebrat es dominat e. Primit ive plant s appear on land. F irst c orals. Primit ive f ishes, seaweeds and f ungi. Grapt olit es, br o oans, gast ropods, bivalves, and ec hinoids. www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 5/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic High sea levels at f irst , global c ooling and glac iat ion, and muc h volc anism. Nort h Americ a under shallow seas. T he Ordovic ian Syst em ends in huge ext inc t ion due t o glac iat ion. Silurian Syst em: 438 t o 408 mya. F irst t errest rial plant s and animals. T he f irst jawed f ishes and uniramians (like insec t s, c ent ipedes and millipedes) appeared during t he Silurian (over 400 million years ago). F irst vasc ular plant s (plant s wit h wat er- c onduc t ing t issue as c ompared wit h non- vasc ular plant s like mosses) appear on land (Cooksonia is t he f irst known). High seas worldwide.Brac hiopods, c rinoids, c orals. Devonian Syst em: "T he Age of F ishes" 408 t o 360 mya. F irst amphibians, ammonit es, f ishes abundant . F ish and land plant s bec ome abundant and diverse. F irst t et rapods appear t oward t he end of t he period. F irst amphibians appear. F irst sharks, bony f ish, and ammonoids.Many c oral reef s, brac hiopods, c rinoids. New insec t s, like springt ails, appeared. Mass ext inc t ion (345 mya) wiped out 30% of all animal f amilies) probably due t o glac iat ion or met eorit e impac t . Carbonif erous: Wide- spread c oal swamps, f oraminif erans, c orals, bryozoans, brac hiopods, blast oids, seed f erns, lyc opsids, and ot her plant s. Amphibians bec ome more c ommon. 360 t o 280 mya Mississippian Sub- Syst em: 360 t o 325 mya: Sharks and amphibians abundant . Large and numerous sc ale t rees and seed f erns. F irst winged insec t s. Pennsylvanian Sub- Syst em: 325 t o 280 mya. Great c oal f orest s, c onif ers. F irst rept iles .F irst rept iles. Many f erns. T he f irst may f lies and c oc kroac hes appear. Permian Syst em: "T he Age of Amphibians" 280 t o 248 mya.Mass ext inc t ion, most kinds of marine animals, inc luding t rilobit es. Sout hern glac iat ion. "T he Age of Amphibians" - Amphibians and rept iles dominant . Gymnosperms dominant plant lif e. T he c ont inent s merge int o a single super- c ont inent , Pangaea. Phyt oplankt on and plant s oxygenat e t he Eart h's at mosphere t o c lose t o modern levels. T he f irst st onef lies, t rue bugs, beet les, and c addisf lies, T he Permian ended wit h largest mass ext inc t ion. T rilobit es go ext inc t , as do 50% of all animal f amilies, 95% of all marine spec ies, and many t rees, perhaps c aused by glac iat ion or volc anism. Lagerst tten (sing. lagerst tte): are f ossil loc alit ies whic h are highly remarkable f or eit her t heir diversit y or qualit y of preservat ion; somet imes bot h. T here are t wo f amous Cambrian age lagerst ät t en known t o almost everybody wit h an int erest in paleont ology t he Burgess Shale in Canada, and Chengjiang in China. Ot her very well- known lagerst ät t en inc lude t he Green River F ormat ion of Wyoming, USA, whic h has produc ed c ount less f ossil f ish f or t he c ommerc ial f ossil market , t he Solnhof en Limest one of Germany, f amous primarily f or t he Ar c heopt er f ossils f ound t here. The Tommotian fauna t his f auna represent s t he f irst evolut ive oc c uranc e of t he skelt et ons in many animal groups. T his ric her f auna appears abrupt ly in t he middle port ion of t he Lower Cambrian rec ord. www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 6/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic T his so- c alled T omot ian f auna, named f or t he T ommot ian St age of Early Cambrian t ime, was f irst disc overed in Siberia. It inc ludes a host of small skelet al el ement s t hat c annot be assigned t o any living phylum and t hat show no relat ion t o any group of f ossils f ound in post - Cambrian roc ks. T he T ommot ian f auna also c ont ains t he oldest known mem bers of a f ew groups t hat survive t o t he present day sponges, whic h are very simple animals monoplac ophorans, whic h were anc est ral t o all present - day groups of mollusks. The B ge Shale fa na St rat a in west ern Nort h Americ a have yielded a spec t ac ular f auna of Middle Cambrian sof t - bodied animals t hat invit es c omparison wit h t he Early Cambrian Chengjiang f auna desc ribed earlier. T he largest group of spec ies in t he Nort h Americ an sof t - bodied f auna c omes f rom t he Burgess Shale, in t he Roc ky Mount ains of Brit ish Columbia (F igure 13- 10). Lat erin t his c hapt er we will examine t he environment in whic h t he Burgess Shale f ormed, but f or now we c an simply not e t hat it ac c umu lat ed in a deep- wat er set t ing where sof t - bodied animals were buried in t he absenc e of oxygen and bac t erial dec ay. Among t he Burgess Shale f ossils is a spec ies t hat represent s t he Chordat a, t he phylum t o whic h vert e brat e animals belong. Pikaia, t he c hordat e genus of t he Burgess Shale f auna, possessed a not oc hord- t he st ruc t ure t hat , in some Cambrian animal group t hat may never be singled out , evolved int o a bac kbone. Rec all t hat t he lanc elet possesses only a not o c hord t oday. Art hropods are t he most abundant of t he Burgess Shale f ossils, and some of t hem resemble c ert ain of t he Chengjiang t axa . Also present are anomaloc arids. In addit ion, bot h t he Chinese and Nort h Americ an f au nas inc lude onyc hophorans. Elongat e animals wit h joint ed legs, onyc hophorans are generally int ermediat e in f orm bet ween segment ed worms and art hropods. T oday members of t his group live as pred at ors on moist f orest f loors, having somehow invaded t he land. Priapulid worms also oc c ur in t he Burgess Shale f auna, along wit h several t ypes of seg ment ed worms. An overall c omparison of t he Chinese f auna wit h t he younger Nort h Americ an f auna indic at es t hat evolut ionary c hanges bet ween Early and Middle Cambrian t ime were relat ively minor f or sof t - bodied in vert ebrat e animals. The ea lie e eb a e Conodont s also diversif ied in t he c ourse of t he Cambrian Period. T heir t eet h, whic h are abundant in t he f ossil rec ord, reveal not hing of t heir body f orm, but t he rec ent disc overy of f ossils of t heir sof t bodies has shown t hem t o have been small swimming animals; t he t eet h t hemselves indic at e t hat c onodont s were t he earliest known vert ebrat e animals. Similar small t eet h in very early Cambrian f aunas may represent c onodont anc est ors. Reef T he oldest organic reef s wit h skelet al f rameworks are low mounds t hat f ormed in Lower Cambrian t ime, beginning in t he T ommot ian. T he main builders of t hese reef s were arc haeoc yat hids, whic h apparent ly were suspension f eeders t hat pumped wat er t hrough holes in t heir vase- shaped and bowl- shaped skelet ons. Arc haeoc yat hids were probably sponges, t he simplest of whic h resemble t hem in general body plan. Alt hough arc haeoc yat hids were t he primary f rame builders of Lower Cambrian reef s, organisms of unknown t axonomic relat ionships ac t ually c ont ribut ed a larger volume of c alc ium c arbonat e t o t hese reef s by enc rust ing arc haeoc yat hid skelet ons and binding t hem t oget her. At t he end of Lower Cambrian t ime, nearly all arc haeoc yat hids bec ame ext inc t . F rom t hen unt il midOrdovic ian t ime, all t hat remained were small, inc onspic uous reef like st ruc t ures f ormed by t he en c rust ing organisms t hat had previously lived wit h t he arc haeoc yat hids. T he Evolut ionary Proc ess of Phanerozoic Lif e Major groups of animals are already present in t he Phanerozoic , at t he beginning of t he Cambrian Syst em, t hier phylogenet ic development is shown in t he f ollowing diagrams as shown below: www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 7/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic The opi hokon (Greek: ??????- (opist h?- ) = "rear, post erior" + ?????? (kont os) = "pole" i.e. f lagellum) are a broad group of eukar ot es, inc luding bot h t he animal and f ungus kingdoms, t oget her wit h t he ph lum Choano oa of t he prot ist kingdom. Bot h genet ic and ult rast ruc t ural st udies st rongl support t hat opist hokont s f orm a monoph let ic group. One c ommon c harac t erist ic is t hat f lagellat e c ells, suc h as most animal sperm and c h t rid spores, propel t hemselves wit h a single post erior f lagellum. T his gives t he groups it s name. In c ont rast , f lagellat e c ells in ot her eukar ot e groups propel t hemselves wit h one or more ant erior f lagella. See Biologic al Princ iples f or a review of t hese c onc ept s www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 8/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic Sc hizoc oels: A group of animal phyla, inc luding Bryozoa, Brac hiopoda, Phoronida, Sipunc uloidea, Ec hiuroidea, Priapuloidea, Mollusc a, Annelida, and Art hropoda, all c harac t erized by t he appearanc e of t he c oelom as a spac e in t he embryonic mesoderm. Lophophore: A horseshoe- shaped c iliat ed organ loc at ed near t he mout h of brac hiopods, bryozoans, and phoronids t hat is used t o gat her f ood. Bac k t o Unit Plan NOT ES ON T HE CLASSIF ICAT ION OF ORGANISMS ----------------------------------------T he sponges or porif erans: Po rif e ra (n. pl.) [NL., f r. L. porus pore + f erre t o bear.] A grand division of t he Invert ebrat a, inc luding t he sponges; - - c alled also Spongiæ, Spongida, and Spongiozoa. T he princ ipal divisions are Calc ispongiæ, Kerat osa or F ibrospongiæ, and Silic ea. T he sponges or porif erans (f rom Lat in porus "pore" and f erre "t o bear") are animals of t he phylum Porif era. T hey are primit ive, sessile, most ly marine, wat er dwelling f ilt er f eeders t hat pump wat er t hrough t heir bodies t o f ilt er out part ic les of f ood mat t er. Sponges represent t he simplest of animals. Wit h no t rue t issues (parazoa), t hey lac k musc les, nerves, and int ernal organs. T heir similarit y t o c olonial c hoanof lagellat es shows t he probable evolut ionary jump f rom unic ellular t o mult ic ellular organisms. T here are over 5,000 modern spec ies of sponges known, and t hey c an be f ound at t ac hed t o surf ac es anywhere f rom t he int ert idal zone t o as deep as 8,500 m (29,000 f eet ) or f urt her. T hough t he f ossil rec ord of sponges dat es bac k t o t he Neoprot erozoic Era, new spec ies are st ill c ommonly disc overed. Sponges are a diverse group of somet imes c ommon t ypes, wit h about 5000 spec ies known ac ross t he world. Sponges are primarily marine, but around 150 spec ies live in f resh wat er. Sponges have c ellular- level organizat ion, meaning t hat t hat t heir c ells are spec ialized so t hat dif f erent c ells perf orm www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 9/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic , .T . --------------------------------------M O , ; , - , , , , , , - , . -----------------------------------B achiopoda B , , .T , .T P A , B . ' , .H , , , .T 300 . T P P .T .L , . A R .B ( ), .H - , , .T R .W :C I L . ( C , ), A C . B ( - ) .H ,B ( ), ( ( ). T ) .T . Ec olog and ph siolog A. M , B. B C. N , : . .S : , , , . , . D. I , .U . E. F 1. F 2. A ( www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html . .D .P .T 3. I ), , , . .M 10/11 12/19/11 Eonothem Phanerozoic sec ret ed b t he gland one of t he mant le lobes. 4. Some spec ies c an reverse t he wat er c urrent when part ic l es ac c umulat e wit hin t he lophophore. 5. Ingest ion is c ont rolled b perist alt ic movement s of t he esophagus and st omac h. F . Predat ors : f ish, men. G. Parasit es : gregarines. ------------------------------ On c hophora T ardigrada Art hropoda Priapulida Ec hinodremat a Annelida Hemic hordat a Bac k t o Unit Plan www2.fiu.edu/ longoria/gly1101/LowerPz.html 11/11 ...
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