10.1.1.89.5616 - DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GPS-BASED...

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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GPS-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR MICRO AIR VEHICLES BY SCOTT M. KANOWITZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2002
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ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to thank Dr. Arroyo for providing me with the opportunity to work alongside him, and for all he has taught me, not only in engineering, but in life, and Dr. Nechyba for his openness to ideas, however wrong they may be, and for his patience and guidance in the way of my education and beyond. You two have my gratitude, and have no idea how much fun you have made this expe- rience. I also wish to thank Dr. Schwartz for his undying pursuit of perfection, Dr. Ifju for provid- ing me with the means and opportunity to work on this project and the members of the Machine Intelligence Laboratory with whom I have shared my workbench and ideas. I also wish to thank my parents for so many things, but mainly for not only telling me, but for providing me with the means to ensure that anything is possible, my brother for his guidance and example from which I live my life, and Stephanie, whose patience and understanding made this experience that much easier.
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iii TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi CHAPTERS 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Micro Air Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Navigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2.1 Ground Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.2.2 Aerial Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.3 Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 OVERVIEW OF SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.2 Micro Air Vehicle Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 Vision System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.4 Control Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3 LIGHT-WEIGHT GPS NAVIGATION SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.2 Hardware Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.3 Software Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2 Initial Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3 PID Controller Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4.4 Ground-Based Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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iv 5 FUTURE WORK AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 APPENDIX SCHEMATICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
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v LIST OF FIGURES figure page 2-1 Polygon estimation using horizon line separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2-2 Horizon estimation; (a) Fitness surface; (b) pixel distribution in RGB space. . . 9 2-3 Vision-based system control diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3-1 REB-2000 GPS receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3-2 Radiometrix TX1 RX1 FM data transmitter receiver pair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3-3 Complete GPS on-board navigation package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3-4 FM data receiver board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3-5 Software flow diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3-6 Flight path bearing error illustration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3-7 Vision-based navigation and GPS-based navigation system integration. . . . . . 22 4-1 GPS data from test path with map overlay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4-2 MAV developed for flight tests of navigation system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 4-3 PID controller tuning method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4-4 New waypoint navigation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 A-1 Schematic for base station data receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 A-2 PCB layout of base station receiver. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 A-3 Schematic for GPS receiver and data transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
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vi Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GPS-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR MICRO AIR VEHICLES By Scott M. Kanowitz May 2002 Chairman: Dr. A. Antonio Arroyo
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course COMPUTER 101 taught by Professor Dr.kahan during the Spring '11 term at Akademia Ekonomiczna w Krakowie.

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10.1.1.89.5616 - DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GPS-BASED...

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