Chapter 17 September 21

Chapter 17 September 21 - 2.) Acidity and Basicity In...

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1 Classifying and Naming Alcohols General Classification: Primary Alcohol Secondary Alcohol Tertiary Alcohol
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2 IUPAC Rules for Naming Alcohols: Examples: Rules for Naming Phenols: Select the longest chain (carbon) containing the hydroxyl group and derive the parent name by replacing the ­e with ­ol Number the chain from the end nearest the hydroxyl group Number the substituents based on the chain position and list them in alphabetical order Use phenol instead of benzene as the parent name Number the substituents according to their postion relative to the ­OH group
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3 Alcohols: Common Names Benzyl Alcohol Allyl Alcohol tert­Butyl Alcohol Ethylene Glycol Glycerol
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4 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols: 1.) Boiling Points and Hydrogen Bonding Figure 17.1 Alcohols and phenols have much higher boiling points than similar alkanes and alkyl halides Positively polarized H from one ­OH group is attracted to the negatively polarized oxygen from another This electrostatic interaction has a dramatic effect on boiling point
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5 Properties of Alcohols and Phenols:
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Unformatted text preview: 2.) Acidity and Basicity In general, alcohols and phenols can act as weak Bronsted acids and bases Acids: Bases: 6 Remember: 7 What factors effect the relative acidity of simple alcohols? Steric Effects: Inductive Effects: Simple alcohols are approximately as acidic as water Increasing the number of alkyl groups (branches) lowers the acidity of the alcohol The more easily the conjugate base (alkoxide ion) is solvated, the stronger the acid 8 Generating Alkoxides from Alcohols: Alcohols are weak acids and thus require strong bases to form alkoxides (conjugate bases) Examples: 9 Acidity of Phenols: How? Phenols are typically much more acidic than alcohols due to the fact that their anion is resonance stabilized Delocalization of the anion leads to a lower pKa and lower basicity of the phenoxide conjugate base 10 Substituent Effects on Phenol Acidity: Electron Withdrawing Group Effect: 11 Alcohol Chemistry: Overview Attachments Nitration Rxn Quiz.doc...
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Chapter 17 September 21 - 2.) Acidity and Basicity In...

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