Chapter 21 November 2

Chapter 21 November 2 - From substituted monocarboxylic...

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1 Chapter 21: Carboxylic Acid Derivatives and Nucleophilic Acyl Substitutions Reactions General Overview of Carboxylic Compounds: Y Group = Carboxylic Acid Acid Halide (Cl and Br only) Acid Anhydride Ester Amide Thioester Acyl Phosphate Structure: acyl group bonded to "Y" (an electronegative atom/group) Halide, acyloxy, alkoxy, amine, thiolate, phosphate
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2 General Reaction Pattern: Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution General Reaction Mechanism:
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3 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives: 1. Acid Halides: Examples: Replace the "­ic acid" ending from the the carboxylic name with "­yl" or replace the "­carboxylic acid" ending with "­carbonyl" and then specify the halide
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4 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives (cont'd): 2. Acid Anhydrides: Examples: From unsubstituted monocarboxylic acids and symmetrical: replace "acid" with "anhydride" based on the carboxylic acid name
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Unformatted text preview: From substituted monocarboxylic acids and symmetrical : use the prefix "bis­" in front of the acid name rather than "di­" If unsymmetrical: list the two acids alphabetically and then replace "acid" with "anhydride" 5 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives (cont'd): 3. Amides: Examples: Unsubstituted NH2 group: replace "­oic acid" or "­ic acid" with "amide" or replace "­carboxylic acid" with "­carboxamide" If the nitrogen is substituted: identify the substituents (use "N" as a locator) and then add the parent amide name 6 Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acid Derivatives (cont'd): 4. Esters: Examples: Name R' first then add a space followed by the carboxylic acid name with the "­ ic acid" ending replaced by "­ate" 7 Summary Table:...
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course CHEM 234-54 taught by Professor Morrison during the Fall '09 term at UGA.

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Chapter 21 November 2 - From substituted monocarboxylic...

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