HIST mid term

HIST mid term - Presidential Reconstruction Define:...

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Reconstruction Define: Presidential Reconstruction was the reconstruction plan in which President Johnson began implementing his plan to restore the union. Johnson’s Reconstruction plan was important because he begin to offer pardons to white southerners, and to those ex-Confederates whose taxable property was worth more than $20,000 at first. He offered these pardons because he sought revenge on the old planter elite and to promote a new yeoman leadership. Gradually, after prominent Confederates won elections, Johnson started pardoning planters and leading rebels, plus returned the planters’ abandoned lands, restored the old elite to powers. Possibly, he did these changes because he wanted to block Radical Republican from implementing extensive and racial political changes in the South. Congressional (“Radical”) Reconstruction The Congressional Reconstruction is the process by which the Republican controlled Congress sought to make the Reconstruction of the ex-Confederate states longer, harsher, and under congressional control. The Congressional Reconstruction was important because Radicals wanted to democratize the South through black suffrage, civil rights, and land confiscation and redistribution. After Johnson and Democrats were forced to work with Radicals, Johnson’s violence, vetoing civil rights law counteracting black codes, over grew. In response to this violence, Republicans secured passage of the Fourteenth Amendment, which conferred citizenship on “all persons born or neutralized in the United States,” and granting voting rights to males. Then they passed four forceful Reconstruction acts with strict and detailed plan for readmitting southern states to the Union. When land redistribution never marginalized, Radical pushed through the final measure, the Fifteenth Amendment, which prohibited states from denying the vote based on “race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Thirteenth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment is a Constitutional amendment that prohibited involuntary servitude and declared Congress shall have the power to enforce this outcome by “appropriate legislation”; ratified by Congress in 1865. Passage of the 13th Amendment recognized slavery’s centrality to the civil war. Former slaves were given an opportunity to explore freedom and independence. This meant minimizing contact with whites, reuniting with their families, creating churches, beginning to educate themselves, and searching for better circumstances, i.e. employment. After the passage of the 13th Amendment, former slaves also began their quest to acquire land. Fourteenth Amendment The Fourteenth Amendment is a constitutional amendment that allowed equal rights for all citizens, now being labeled as all persons born or naturalized in the U.S., and also With the passage of the 14th Amendment, the three- fifths clause was ended for counting blacks, which increased southern representation in the South. This positioned the postwar South to gain power in Congress. The Amendment also specified that voters were male
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course HIST 2112 taught by Professor Sutter during the Fall '07 term at UGA.

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HIST mid term - Presidential Reconstruction Define:...

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