HIST final terms - Bonus Army (pg. 655) Definition: Bonus...

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Bonus Army (pg. 655) Definition: Bonus Army is the group of unemployed veterans of the First World War gathered in Washington D.C. to demand payment of their soldier bonuses. Significance: Bonus Army was significant because it showed depression’s impact on the Federal Government. A bill was proposed stating that the government was scheduled to immediately pay bonuses to soldiers in 1945. In the summer of 1932, more than 15,000 unemployed WWI veterans and their families converged on the nation’s capital to ask for payments of cash bonuses that veterans were scheduled to receive in 1945. Concerned about the impact on the federal budget, President Hoover opposed the bonus bill, and the senate vetoed it down. Most of the veterans left Washington, but several thousand stayed. President sent in the U.S. army with four infantry companies, four troops of cavalry, and a machine gun squadron, and six tanks on the veterans and their families to force them out. These led men and women chased by horsemen; children tear-gassed; shacks set afire. Hoovervilles (pg. 655) Hoovervilles are neighborhoods made up of houses that were built with whatever materials that could be salvaged by the homeless. During the Great Depression, as the number of unemployed grew, so did the number of those who lost their homes. In desperation, many of the homeless flocked to urban areas, seeking public assistance for food and a chance to find employment. In many cities, the homeless congregated on vacant land, establishing shantytowns. The homeless used whatever building materials they could find to construct shelters. These shantytowns were called “Hoovervilles”, making reference to President Hoover and the Republican party for their failures in bringing the American economy out of the depression. As an example, World War I veterans calling themselves the Bonus Army, set up a sprawling Hooverville shantytown across the river from the capitol. Modern Times (1936) (movie) Modern Time is a Charlie Chaplin film that many Americans found related to, thanks to the portrayal of bosses, the average work day, and the struggles of the Great Depression. The film was a source of much-needed comic relief during the economic depression of the 1930s. The ridiculous situations, overly-exaggerated characters, and simplistic charm all appealed to the masses that were struggling to get by and really needed a good laugh during difficult times. Viewers found they could relate to Modern Times due to the unsympathetic characterization of bosses, as well as the portrayal of harsh working conditions that reduced humans to parts of a machine. Underlying themes of the Great Depression - including unemployment, the stealing of food, and riots - were welcomed by movie goers as well.
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First One Hundred Days (pg. 657) First One Hundred Days are the when Roosevelt, aided by his advisers, lawyers, university professors, and social workers collectively nicknamed the “Brain Trust” and by the capable First Lady, sought to
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HIST final terms - Bonus Army (pg. 655) Definition: Bonus...

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