# lecture-10 - Chapter 10 Alternate Characterizations of...

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Chapter 10 Alternate Characterizations of Markov Processes This lecture introduces two ways of characterizing Markov pro- cesses other than through their transition probabilities. Section 10.1 addresses a question raised in the last class, about when being Markovian relative to one ﬁltration implies being Markov relative to another. Section 10.2 describes discrete-parameter Markov processes as transformations of sequences of IID uniform variables. Section 10.3 describes Markov processes in terms of measure- preserving transformations (Markov operators), and shows this is equivalent to the transition-probability view. 10.1 The Markov Property Under Multiple Fil- trations In the last lecture, we deﬁned what it is for a process to be Markovian relative to a given ﬁltration F t . The question came up in class of when knowing that X Markov with respect to one ﬁltration F t will allow us to deduce that it is Markov with respect to another, say G t . To begin with, let’s introduce a little notation. Deﬁnition 106 (Natural Filtration) The natural ﬁltration for a stochastic process X is F X t σ ( { X u , u t } ) . Obviously, every process X is adapted to F X t . Deﬁnition 107 (Comparison of Filtrations) A ﬁltration G t is ﬁner than or more reﬁned than or a reﬁnement of F t , F t ≺ G t , if, for all t , F t G t , and at least sometimes the inequality is strict. F t is coarser or less ﬁne than G t . If F t ≺ G t or F t = G t , we write F t ± G t . 54

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CHAPTER 10. MARKOV CHARACTERIZATIONS 55 Lemma 108 If X is adapted to G t , then F X t ± G t . Proof: For each t , X t is G t measurable. But F X t is, by construction, the smallest σ -algebra with respect to which X t is measurable, so, for every t , F X t ⊆ G t , and the result follows. ± Theorem 109 If X is Markovian with respect to G t , then it is Markovian with respect to any coarser ﬁltration to which it is adapted, and in particular with respect to its natural ﬁltration. Proof: Use the smoothing property of conditional expectations: For any two σ -ﬁelds F ⊂ G and random variable Y , E [ Y |F ] = E [ E [ Y |G ] |F ] a.s. So, if F t is coarser than G t , and X is Markovian with respect to the latter, for any function f L 1 and time s > t , E [ f ( X s ) |F t ] = E [ E [ f ( X s ) |G t ] |F t ] a.s. (10.1) = E [ E [ f ( X s ) | X t ] |F t ] (10.2) = E [ f ( X s ) | X t ] (10.3) where the last line uses the facts that (i) E [ f ( X s ) | X t ] is a function X t , (ii) X is adapted to F t , so X t is F t -measurable, and (iii) if Y is F -measurable, then E [ Y |F ] = Y . Since this holds for all f L 1 , it holds in particular for 1 A , where A is any measurable set, and this established the conditional independence which constitutes the Markov property. Since (Lemma 108) the natural ﬁltration is the coarsest ﬁltration to which X is adapted, the remainder of the theorem follows. ± The converse is false, as the following example shows.
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lecture-10 - Chapter 10 Alternate Characterizations of...

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