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Lecture 7 - Mineral Resources Non-Metals Mineral Resources...

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2/22/10 1 Mineral Resources Non-Metals Mineral Resources Mineral Resources - all the elements, chemical compounds, minerals and rocks that we exploit. OR “If it can’t be grown; it must be mined”. Concrete - limestone, sand, gravel Glass - sand, salt, limestone Vinyl flooring - petroleum, salt Walls - gypsum Steel Beams - iron, coal
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2/22/10 2 http://money.cnn.com/data/ commodities/ Commodity Market – markets where raw resources are traded Wikepedia Amount of new mineral materials required annually by each U.S. citizen (1997) Non-Metals Metals 1. Stone 11,755 lbs. 2. Sand & Gravel 7,825 lbs. 3. Cement 790 lbs. 4. Clays 343 lbs. 5. Salts 304 lbs. 1. Iron & Steel 937 lbs. 2. Aluminum 55 lbs. 3. Copper 24 lbs. 4. Lead 13 lbs. 5. Zinc 11 lbs.
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2/22/10 3 Stone Most abundantly used mineral material; usually cut & blasted from quarries. Stone Just about every type of rock has been used in building, including granite, sandstone, limestone, marble, serpentine (a highly metamorphosed green rock), slate.
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2/22/10 4 Used In: crushed rock - used for road construction & as an aggregate for concrete flagstone rip-rap roofing slate cut stone Sand & Gravel Obtained from sediment deposits of present-day or ancient river channels or alluvial fans. In these environments nature sorted the rock by size, rounded the grains, and deposited huge quantities. alluvial fan meandering river rounded quartz sand sand sand & gravel
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2/22/10 5 Sand & Gravel Sand & gravel are cheap and plentiful. All that’s need are bulldozers and dredging equipment. It is then washed and screened to further separate sizes. dredger sorted sand & gravel Sand & Gravel Like crushed rock the gravel is principally used in road construction and as an aggregate for concrete. glass Sand is also used in making concrete but one of its major uses is in making glass. concrete
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2/22/10 6 Glass Glass is noncrystalline but its principal component is quartz - SiO 2 - silica (60-80% by weight) obtained from quartz sand. Pure silica melts at very high temp (1713 o C) (very expensive energy use) so most glass is made by adding other ingredients that lower the melting T. most glass = sand + soda (Na 2 O) + lime (CaO) (soda-lime -silica glass) (Lowers melting T but is water soluble) (stabilizer) (from evaporites) (from limestone) (used for bottles, windows) Glass Borosilicate glass - (Pyrex) - contains 10-14% boric oxide (B 2 O 3 ) from the mining of borax [evaporite mineral - more later]; resistant to chemicals (corrosion) and rapid heating and cooling.
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