Lecture 5 - Kimbell Knight 2/1/10 orbitals or electron...

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Kimbell Knight 2/1/10 GEOS 1024 - Resources Geology 1 Minerals and Rocks Proton : + charge, atomic weight = 1 Neutron : neutral, atomic weight = 1 Electron : - charge, atomic weight = 0 Structure of Atoms Beryllium - 8 Be orbitals or electron shells nucleus 4 Atomic Weight = P + N = 8 Atomic Number = P = 4 Isotopes Hydrogen - 1 H 1 Tritium - 3 H Deuterium - 2 H 1 1 Isotopes are atoms that have the same number of protons and differ only in the number of neutrons. Three different forms of hydrogen are shown below: Periodic Table of Elements TABLE 3.1 Bonding of Atoms Atoms may bond to one another to form new compounds and minerals. The bonds are all about how the electrons between the atoms interact. There are four main types of bonds: 1. Covalent Bonds - atoms actually share their electrons; very strong bonds; e.g. diamond 2. Ionic Bonds - atoms gain or lose electrons and are then attracted to one another by their electric charges; weaker bonds often dissolved by water; e.g. halite (rock salt) Wikepedia
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Kimbell Knight 2/1/10 GEOS 1024 - Resources Geology 2 Ionic Bonds Atoms that have gained electrons (negatively charged anions ) or lost electrons (positively charged cations ) are called ions . Sodium (Na) Chlorine (Cl) Sodium is a dangerous metal. Chlorine is a poisonous gas. Ionic Bonds But when sodium and chlorine get close together in water, the sodium easily loses its electron and chlorine gains it. This results in Na +1 and Cl -1 . Now they are attracted to each other as an Ionic Bond to form the mineral halite or salt - our life blood!. Na Cl Sodium cation (Na + ) Chlorine anion (Cl - ) + - Bonding of Atoms 3. Van der Waals Bonds - weak attractions between chains or sheets of ions; e.g. graphite 4. Metallic Bonds - form between metallic atoms where electrons freely move between the shells of the atoms; results in the common properties of metals such as electrical and thermal conductivity and malleability and ductility; e.g. gold, copper Mineral 1. Must be naturally formed 2. Normally a solid - i.e. ice, excludes water 3. Have a characteristic chemical formula 4. Have a characteristic crystalline structure - excludes glass (made of SiO 2 like quartz, but amorphous – without crystalline structure) A mineral is a naturally occurring, solid Earth material that has formed by geologic processes. A mineral is an element or compound (composed
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Lecture 5 - Kimbell Knight 2/1/10 orbitals or electron...

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