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GEO- FINAL review - GEOLOGY FINAL REVIEW 1 Times Beach...

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GEOLOGY FINAL REVIEW 1. Times Beach, Missouri a. River town that was contaminated with dioxin that seeped into the soils from the oil sprayed on the road to control dust. b. 1983- Town was evacuated and purchased by the government for $36 million. c. Now a state park and bird refuge. d. Dioxin is a colorless compound . d.i. Extremely toxic to mammals and thought to be carcinogen in humans. d.ii. Effects on reproduction and sexual development and the immune system. d.iii. Accumulates in fatty tissues. d.iv. Produced as a by-product of herbicides. 2. Soil defined by geologist tends to focus on the processes that formed the soils while Engineers focus on the structure and the properties. a. Land capability : soil properties are important for urbanization, timber management, and agriculture. b. Waste-disposal : interactions between waste, water, soil and rock determine the suitability of a particular site to receive waste. c. Natural hazards : floods, landslides, and earthquakes. c.i. Floodplain and upland soils are different; their properties can be used to define the extension of floodplains. c.ii. Relative ages of soils help to estimate the frequency of landslides. c.iii. Soils deformation is studied to investigate faults behavior, which is important to determine the frequency of earth quakes. 3. Soils characteristics : dependent on climate and help to understand regional and global changes in climate. a. Calcium carbonate accumulates in desert soils. b. Organic matter accumulates in tropical soils. 4. Soil Development : forms as a consequence of 4 processes that operate together with 5 basic soil-forming factors. a. Processes : a.i. Additions: include organic matter, fertilizer, pollutants, and soil material. a.ii. Transformations: changes that take place within a soil. Microorganisms, earthworms, and chemical weathering play an important role. b. Soil-forming factors : parent material, climate, living and dead organisms, time, and landscape position. 5. Soil profile : layering parallel to the surface created by vertical and horizontal movements of material, the layers are called horizons. a. O: composed mostly of organic materials including decomposed or decomposing leaves, twigs, etc. color is usually dark brown or black. b. A: both mineral and organic materials. Black to brown coloring. Leaching occurs in the A horizon and moves clay and other material such as Fe and CA to the B horizon. c. E: light colored materials resulting from leaching of clay. Ca, Mg, and Fe, to lower horizons. A and E together are the zone of leaching. Can be white colored.
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d. B: enriched in clay, iron oxides, silica, carbonate or other material leached from overlying horizons. Known as the zone of accumulating. Coloring can go from light red-brown to dark-red, depending on clay materials and Fe oxides.
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