GEOLOGY FINAL REVIEW
Times Beach, Missouri
River town that was contaminated with dioxin that seeped into the soils from the
oil sprayed on the road to control dust.
1983- Town was evacuated and purchased by the government for $36 million.
Now a state park and bird refuge.
Dioxin is a colorless compound
Extremely toxic to mammals and thought to be carcinogen in humans.
Effects on reproduction and sexual development and the immune system.
Accumulates in fatty tissues.
Produced as a by-product of herbicides.
Soil defined by geologist tends to focus on the processes that formed the soils while
Engineers focus on the structure and the properties.
: soil properties are important for urbanization, timber
management, and agriculture.
: interactions between waste, water, soil and rock determine the
suitability of a particular site to receive waste.
: floods, landslides, and earthquakes.
Floodplain and upland soils are different; their properties can be used to
define the extension of floodplains.
Relative ages of soils help to estimate the frequency of landslides.
Soils deformation is studied to investigate faults behavior, which is
important to determine the frequency of earth quakes.
: dependent on climate and help to understand regional and global
changes in climate.
Calcium carbonate accumulates in desert soils.
Organic matter accumulates in tropical soils.
: forms as a consequence of 4 processes that operate together with 5
basic soil-forming factors.
Additions: include organic matter, fertilizer, pollutants, and soil material.
Transformations: changes that take place within a soil. Microorganisms,
earthworms, and chemical weathering play an important role.
: parent material, climate, living and dead organisms, time,
and landscape position.
: layering parallel to the surface created by vertical and horizontal movements
of material, the layers are called horizons.
O: composed mostly of organic materials including decomposed or decomposing
leaves, twigs, etc. color is usually dark brown or black.
A: both mineral and organic materials. Black to brown coloring. Leaching occurs
in the A horizon and moves clay and other material such as Fe and CA to the B
E: light colored materials resulting from leaching of clay. Ca, Mg, and Fe, to
lower horizons. A and E together are the zone of leaching. Can be white colored.