GEO- EXAM 2 REVIEW - Geology Review #2 1. Tools for...

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Geology Review #2 1. Tools for studying Global climate change a. Geologic record a.i. Co2 trapped in air bubbles in glacial ice, organic material in sediments, fossils/tree rings/pollen. b. Real-Time monitoring b.i. Sampling atmospheric gases, recording temperature, composition of ocean c. Mathematical Models c.i. Global circulation models, predicting changes in atmospheric circulation at the global scale. 2. Atmosphere and Climate Change: a. Warm tropical air near the equator rises and moves north and south descending in the mid-latitudes. The air then rises again at higher latitudes and finally descends at the poles. b. Climate change=atmospheric changes c. Studies the connections between atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. d. Global circulation and movement of air masses in the atmosphere produce the major climatic zones. e. Atmosphere= complex chemical factory . 3. Global Warming : Increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid 20 th century and its projected continuation. a. Greenhouse Effect: trap more heat and warming up the lower atmosphere. b. The concentration of greenhouse gases increased recently due to human activities. c. Low temperatures= major glacial events d. High temperatures= interglacial conditions e. In the 1990s and first 5 years of the 21 st century has had the warmest temperatures 4. WHY? a. Milankovitch Cycles : a.i. 100k years-variation in earth orbit around the sun a.ii. 20-40k years: wobbling of earth axis b. Climate system unstable even in shorter cycles—the ocean conveyor belt, global circulation of ocean water, contributes to the change. c. Human activities : have a role in climate change c.i. Not explained by natural variability. 5. New Conditions : a. Contraction in ice caps accelerates warming by the earth to absorbing more heat b. Rise in sea level increases flooding, groundwater contamination. c. Shift in weather patterns affect worldwide food production. d. Some areas warmer with loss of arctic ice. e. Some areas colder as the Gulf Stream Conveyor slows f. Has already Happened : f.i. Ice is melting, especially at the poles. f.ii. Adelie Penguins declining. (32,000 to 11,000 every 30 years) f.iii. See level rising over last century f.iv. Animals moving farther north to cooler temperatures
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f.v. Precipitation has increased across the globe Beetles booming in Alaska due to warm temperatures. g. Could happen : g.i. Sea levels expected to continue to rise and poles to melt. g.ii. Hurricanes and other storms expected to become stronger g.iii. Floods and droughts will be more common. g.iv. Less fresh water available g.v. Some diseases will spread Ecosystems will change; some more successful, others extinct. h.
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2011 for the course GEOS 1024 taught by Professor Meschreiber during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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GEO- EXAM 2 REVIEW - Geology Review #2 1. Tools for...

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