HarrisonIntro2010-Methods

HarrisonIntro2010-Methods - THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY...

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Unformatted text preview: THE SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH METHODS 1 First Photo of Michael Phelps 2 RESEARCH METHODS OUTLINE PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE METHODS CASE HISTORY vs. SINGLE­SUBJECT EXPERIMENT TEST METHOD SURVEY METHOD OBSERVATIONAL METHOD CORRELATIONAL METHOD EXPERIMENTAL METHOD 3 PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE HOW DO WE EXPLAIN BEHAVIOR? IN THE SCIENCES: MOST COMMON EXPLANATION: REIFICATION EXPLANATION BY LABELING WHAT ABOUT THE LEVEL OF EXPLANATION? PSYCHOLOGY BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS 4 WHO WILL EXPLAIN PHYSICS? WE CAN NO LONGER LOOK TO PHYSICS FOR AN ABSOLUTE EXPLANATION REVOLUTIONS IN PHYSICS NEWTON & THE APPLE TREE EINSTEIN PRINCIPLE OF RELATIVITY “GOD DOES NOT PLAY DICE” HEISENBURG’S PHYSICS THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE 5 THE UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE REDUCES EXPLANATION IN PHYSICS TO THE LEVEL OF EXPLANATION OF THE OTHER SCIENCES 6 Karl Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle 1. You can speak with certainty only about that which you have observed. 2. The very act of observing changes that which is observed. 7 RESEARCH TERMS FACTUAL STATEMENTS CLASS PERFORMANCE & AROUSAL LEVEL MURDER & TEMPERATURE EMPIRICAL LAWS PERFORMANCE IS RELATED TO AROUSAL LEVEL THE YERKES­DODSON LAW THEORY HYPOTHESIS AROUSAL THEORY 8 The Yerkes Dodson Law OPTIMAL POINT P E R F O R M A N C E LOW A R O U S A L HIGH 9 Arousal Theory RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM 10 How Do We Study Behavior? CASE HISTORY RETROSPECTIVE RECONSTRUCTION FREUD & “ANNA O” (HYSTERIA) SINGLE­SUBJECT EXPERIMENT ABAB REVERSAL DESIGN SELF­ABUSIVE BEHAVIOR NALTREXONE MULTIPLE BASELINE DESIGN TORTICOLLIS 11 ABAB Reversal Design Self­Abusive Behavior H I T S BASELINE TREATMENT BASELINE TREATMENT NALTREXONE NALTREXONE 12 Multiple Baseline Design Spasmodic Torticollis D E G R E E S T I L T VERTICAL TILT LATERAL TILT BASELINE 1 & 2 TX VERTICAL TX LATERAL 13 TEST METHOD SAT, ACT, INTELLIGENCE, ACHEIVEMENT SURVEY METHOD UNITED STATES CENSUS OBSERVATIONAL METHOD JANE GOODALL PRIMATES IN AFRICA MASTERS & JOHNSON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR 14 Correlational Method ALLOWS PREDICTION OF ONE VARIABLE FROM THE LEVEL OF ANOTHER VARIABLE VT FOOTBALL & CITY HOH SUPPLY r = 0.00 TO 1.00 r = POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE r = +1.00 OR ­1.00 = PERFECT COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION ALLOWS MAGNITUDE COMPARISON (r = .7) Versus (r = .5) .49 vs. .25 15 Scatter Plots of Different Correlations 16 A Negative Correlation Watching TV& Grades 17 Experimental Method MUST MANIPULATE A VARIABLE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE MUST MEASURE A VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARIABLE ALLOWS CAUSALITY INFERENCE MUST HAVE CONTROL GROUPS CREST TOOTHPASTE PREVENTS CAVITIES 18 ...
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