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HarrisonIntro2010-Development - LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT...

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Unformatted text preview: LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT LECTURE OUTLINE DEVELOPMENTAL VS. CHILD PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH TECHNIQUES CROSS­SECTIONAL LONGITUDINAL CROSS­SEQUENTIAL MAJOR META­THEORIES THE NATURE­NURTURE ISSUE EMPIRICIST (NURTURE) RATIONALIST (NATURE) EARLY DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES FREUD PIAGET 1 2 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY CHILD PSYCHOLOGY FOCUS: CHILDHOOD WHAT: HUMAN CHILDREN TASK: 1.CAN WE DESCRIBE THE BEHAVIOR OF CHILDREN? DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY FOCUS: FULL LIFESPAN WHAT: CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENCE ADULTHOOD ELDERLY NONHUMANS TASK: 1. CAN WE PREDICT LATER LIFE FROM EVENTS EARLIER IN LIFE? 2. ARE EARLIER EVENTS “CAUSAL”? 3. IF SO­­CAN WE CHANGE THE DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME? 3 SOME EXAMPLES DOES VIOLENCE ON TV HAVE THE SAME EFFECT ON CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT AGES? SCHIZOPHRENIC MOMS CHOO­CHOO MONKEYS HARRY HARLOW THROWS IN THE TOWEL CHILDREN OF DEPRESSED MOMS CHILDREN OF ETOH PARENTS CHILD ABUSE STEALING & TRUANCY THE CONDUCT DISORDERED CHILD’S PROGNOSIS A CHAINSAW STORY 4 RESEARCH DESIGNS CROSS­SECTIONAL HYPOTHESIS AGE DIFFERENCES IQ DIFFERS ACROSS AGE GROUPS NEURONAL LOSS DESIGN AGE GROUP SAMPLES 20 40 60 80 100 LONGITUDINAL HYPOTHESIS AGE CHANGES IQ CHANGES WITH AGE DESIGN SAME FOLKS ACROSS TIME (e.g., Kagan & Moss) 1929­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­1959 5 EFFECT OF AGE ON VERBAL INTELLEGENCE SCORES From Myers, 1992 6 PROBLEMS WITH THESE RESEARCH DESIGNS CROSS­SECTIONAL “COHORT EFFECT” INTRO. PSYCH. 9­11 4­16­07 LONGITUDINAL COST!!! REACTIVITY EFFECTS ATTRITION INSTRUMENTATION CHOICE OF MEASURES “COHORT EFFECT” 7 A POSSIBLE SOLUTION ALLOWS FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE COHORT EFFECT THE CROSS­SEQUENTIAL DESIGN 1 2 3 4 5 2006 1 2 3 4 5 6 2007 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2008 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2009 8 Two Meta Theories EMPIRICISTS (NURTURE) RATIONALIST (NATURE) JOHN LOCKE (1690) DESCARTES, KANT HUMAN MIND AT BIRTH IS A “TABULA RASA” HUMAN MIND HAS INNATE IDEAS EVEN AT BIRTH e.g., GOD THIS WAS A PROBLEM ON COMING TO AMERICA NATIVE AMERICANS MUST BE LESS THAN HUMAN 9 TWO META THEORIES EMPIRICISTS (NURTURE) FOCUS: LIFE EXPERIENCES DEVELOPMENT = LEARNING RATIONALIST (NATURE) FOCUS: MATURATION DEVELOPMENT = MATURATION 10 TWO META THEORIES EMPIRICISTS (NURTURE) DEVELOPMENT = SMOOTH CONTINUOUS PROCESS CONTINUUM RATIONALIST (NATURE) DEVELOPMENT = ABRUBT BIOLOGICAL CHANGES STAGES 11 EMPIRICIST RATIONALIST 12 DEVELOPMENT DEFINED AN INTERACTION BETWEEN MATURATION & EXPERIENCE MATURATION A BIOLOGICAL UNFOLDING EXPERIENCE LEARNING 13 SIGMUND FREUD BORN 1856 IN FRIBURG, CHECKOSLAVAKIA MEDICAL DEGREE AT AGE 25 TREATED “ANNA O” A 21 YEAR OLD “HYSTERIC” SHE BECAME A WELL KNOWN FEMINIST HELPED BREAK THE WHITE SLAVE TRAFFIC STAGE THEORY INVARIANT SEQUENCE OR ORDER OF DEVELOPMENT LINKED LEARNING TO MATURATION EARLY EXPERIENCE HYPOTHESIS FIXATION IF NEEDS AT EACH STAGE ARE NOT ADEQUATELY MET PERSONALITY LARGE ESTABLISHED BY AGE 6 14 FREUD’S STAGE THEORY BASED ON SELF GRATIFICATION OR PLEASURE BASIC VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE STAGES ORAL ANAL PHALLIC LATENT GENITAL 15 FREUD’S STRUCTURAL MODEL ID ANIMAL INSTINCTS PRESENT AT BIRTH NEED FOR IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION WE ARE OFTEN PUNISHED FOR THESE SUPEREGO SOCIETAL RULES, MAKE US FEEL GUILTY EGO EFFICIENT PLEASURE SEEKING BALANCES DEMANDS OF ID AND SUPEREGO THE RED LIGHT 16 PIAGET FRENCH DEVELOPMENTALIST Died 1978 or 79 Biological Stages Overlap Due To Experiential Influences Vertical De’Collage 17 Piaget’s Stages Defined By The Primary Accomplishment Stages Sensorimotor Object Permanence Preoperational Use of Language Concrete Operational Conservation Relational Thought Number (6), Mass (7), Weight (9) Formal Operational Abstract Concepts Reasoning by Hypothesis Not by Trial & Error Approximate Age 0 – 2 2 – 7 7 – 12 12 + 18 Object Permanence From Prentice Hall, 1989 19 Conservation From West Publishing, 1986 20 The Developmental Process Egocentrism Development Goal = Decentration Accommodation Assimilation Assimilate The concept or Schema Accommodate Thumb Sucking­­­­­­­­­Nipple 21 Critical Periods In Embryonic Development From McGraw Hill, 1996 22 Critical Periods “A Window In Time” Circumstances Have Lasting & Irreversible Consequences 23 Possible Examples Embryonic Development German Measles, ETOH, Thalidamide “The FLK Syndrome” Dog Domestication The 14th Week Childhood Emotional Attachment “1st Three Years” Infant Communication – Babble Uniformly 0 – 6 Months Loss of Sounds Other Than Native Tongue Gender Identification – “John or Joan” “A Boy Without a Penis” 24 Environmental Enrichment & Deprivation Classic Orphanage Research Primate Research Canine Research Incubators 25 Effects of Early Experience Environmental Deprivation Early Motor Development Thought to be Mostly Maturation However, Orphanages Only 42 % Could Sit Alone at Age 2 Normal = 8 Months 26 Research Varied Amount of Stimulation Amount of Stimulation Rate of Development 27 Can We Make Up For Early Deprivation? NonHuman Primate Research Monkeys Reared Only In Diffuse Light Result = Retarded Development Next Enriched Environment Result = 1. Resiliency 2. Required Less Experience To Catch Up What Would Piaget Say? 28 Canine Research Dogs Reared Without Human Contact & Confined Result “Stupid Dogs” Not Found To Be Resilient 29 An Overall Conclusion Generally Early Deprivation Results in Animals/Humans That Do Not Learn as Quickly Decreased Cortical Thickness Decreased Brain Weight Decreased Neuronal Associations 30 Environmental Enrichment The 1960s, DDT, & Sterile Environments Researchers Discover The Incubator Effect Retarded Development Attempted to Enrich the Incubator Added Sounds, Movement, Color, etc. Results Accelerated Rate of Development A Nation Focused on Enrichment 31 A Caution From Piaget? Isolation or Deprivation = Aversive Child Will Seek Stimulation Stimulation Must Be Appropriate to the Developmental Level The Biological Platform 32 One More Orphanage Experiment Surrogate Mother Group Baseline +32 IQ Points Control Group -21 T I M E 33 Development of Social Attachment Harry Harlow Past President of A.P.A. “Mother Love” What is the Critical Ingredient? Most Thought Adequate Nutrition Contact Comfort 34 Development of Social Attachments Series of Experiments Lack of Contact Comfort Result Choo­Choo Monkey Mother Love = Contact Comfort 35 Choo Choo Monkeys Harry Harlow 36 ROCKABYEBABY Harry Harlow rockabyebaby­small.rm 37 Child Rearing Practices A commentary on: How to Raise Your Child Spock “Let Cry For 20 Minutes….” Church Strict vs. Liberal? Results Assuming Major Parenting Goal = Independence Love/Contact Comfort = Critical 38 Absence of Warmth in Early Years 1. “Neuroticism” 2. Aggressiveness 3. Submissiveness 4. Poor “Impulse Control” 39 GEROPSYCHOLOGY WHY AGING?­­­DEMOGRAPHICS WHAT IS AGING? WHAT HAPPENS WITH AGING? WHO ARE THE AGED? WHERE ARE THEY? CONCERNS ABOUT INSTITUTIONS 40 WHY AGING? DEMOGRAPHICS Demographics Median Age George Washington’s Time 17 In 1900 25 Year 2000 35 65 And Over In 1900 4% Year 2000 13% Year 2030 21% 1 in 5 41 WHAT IS AGING? Chronological Age From Birth 13 Year Old vs. 105 Year Old Chronological Age From Death Increased Variability or Heterogeneity Most Consistent Finding In Aging Research 42 WHAT HAPPENS WITH AGING? Most Satisfied Age Group Overall Major Goal For Many = Maintain Independence Reduced Adaptability Increased Stress & Expectations Loss of Power Move From “Producer” to “Consumer” Kids May Try To Make Decisions Basic Right To Work; Forced Retirement 43 Increasing Isolation Younger Older 44 Social Support Networks These Keep You Out of Nursing Home Men The Wife May Be It Women More Likely To Have a Support Network 45 WHO ARE THE AGED? Largest Users of Health Care Services 50% of Chronically Mentally Ill Older Men = Very High Suicide Rate 69 Men For Every 100 Women 65 & Over 57 Men For Every 100 Women 75 & Over Needs of Older Women What Happen to The Men? 46 WHERE ARE THEY? Women Live Alone More 18% Men; 43% Women Harder to Replace Spouse May Not Want To Vast Majority Live In Family Setting 4% to 5% 60+ Reside In Nursing Home At Any One Time 25% Go To A Nursing Home Message = Go There To Die 47 Effects of Institutionalization Federal Bill Of Rights 78% of Those Entering NHCU Die Within 4 Years 58% For Those Entering Other Facilities 48 ...
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