PSYCH FINAL REVIEW:
Chapter 13: Health Stress and Coping:
: any event that strains or exceeds an individual’s ability to cope.
Sources of Stress
: cause adjustments (not always negative, but still stressful)
Crime & violence, loss of family member, natural disasters, terrorism, daily hassles,
positive life events.
Frustration: not able to satisfy a motive.
: two or more motives cannot be satisfied because they interfere with each other.
Approach-approach; must choose between two positives goals of approximately equal
value. (choosing between 2 jobs)
Avoidance-avoidance; must choose between two or more negative outcomes. (tooth ache
or pain of going to the dentist)
Approach-avoidance; obtaining a positive goal causes a negative outcome as well
(accepted to a college far away from a best friend)
Multiple approach-avoidance: requires the individual to choose between two alternatives
that contain both positive and negative consequences. (scholarships to two different
schools, one weaker than the other, but you like the other aspects of the school better)
Pressure (vs. Support): threats of negative events. (getting bad grades)
Environmental conditions: aspects of the environment (temperature, air pollution, noise,
humidity, etc.) can cause stress.
Reacting to Stress
: changes in our emotions, motivations, and cognitions.
Feel anxiety, depression, anger, and irritability.
Changes in appetite for food and sex.
Difficulty concentrating or ability to think clearly.
Can cause long lasting changes in emotions, motivations, and cognition.
: General Adaptation Syndrome: body mobilizes to defense.
Alarm: initial response to any threat, including psychological stress.
Increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Hard to tell between a cold or stress
Resistance: body’s resources fully mobilized, and resistance to stress is high. However, if
more stress is encountered, the body is less able to deal with it. If more does continue,
resources depleted and goes to stage 3…
Exhaustion: if stress continues individual’s resources may become exhausted, resulting in
less resistance to stress and infection.
Death can occur in cases of prolonged stress (severe cases), but prolonged can
really disrupt body functioning.
stress reduces the effectiveness of the immune system
: stress raises probability of depression, anxiety, and high levels of depression result
in lowered immune systems. (higher rates of cardiac disease)
Eating and sleeping habits are very poor
Drink excessively, smoke, and not exercise.
Factors Influencing Reactions to Stress: differences among individuals.