SolomonsLKChapter4

SolomonsLKChapter4 - Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature,...

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Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature, Conformational Analysis, and an Introduction to Synthesis
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Alkanes = saturated hydrocarbons Simplest alkane = methane CH 4 We can build additional alkanes by adding - CH 2 – units C n H 2n+2 = saturated = no double bonds, no rings
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l Straight-chain z alkanes have a zig-zag orientation when they are in their most straight orientation Shapes of Alkanes
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There is no limit on length of chain Polyethylene = an l inFnite z alkane
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At least one carbon attached to more than two others Branched alkanes
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Same molecular formula but different connectivity of atoms Constitutional isomers have different physical properties (melting point, boiling point, densities etc.) Many constitutional isomers are possible 5 l hexanes z C 6 H 14
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The number of constitutional isomers possible for a given molecular formula rise rapidly with the number of carbons
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A reaction of alkanes - Combustion All hydrocarbons are combustible Combine with oxygen and release energy Heat of combustion is very high 2C 8 H 18 + 25O 2 16CO 2(g) + 18H 2 O (l) ! H comb = -5452 kJ/mol (or -47.8 kJ/g)
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Early chemicals were given l common z or l trivial z names based on the source of the compound or a physical property The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) started devising a systematic approach to nomenclature in 1892 The fundamental principle in devising the system was that each different compound should have a unique, unambiguous name The basis for all IUPAC nomenclature is the set of rules used for naming alkanes IUPAC Nomenclature
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Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkanes Learn the Frst ten!
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The unbranched alkyl groups are obtained by removing one hydrogen from the alkane and named by replacing the -ane of the corresponding alkane with -yl Nomenclature of Unbranched Alkyl groups
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1. Locate the longest continuous chain of carbons; this is the parent chain and determines the parent name. 2. Number the longest chain beginning with the end of the chain nearer the substituent. 3. Designate the location of the substituent. Nomenclature of Branched-Chain Alkanes (IUPAC) 7 carbons = a heptane
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Nomenclature of Branched-Chain Alkanes (IUPAC) – cont. 4. When two or more substituents are present, give each substituent a number corresponding to its location on the longest chain Substituents are listed alphabetically 4-ethyl-3-methylheptane
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Nomenclature of Branched-Chain Alkanes (IUPAC) – cont. 5. When two or more substituents are identical, use the preFxes di -, tri -, tetra - etc. a) Commas are used to separate numbers from each other b) Repeat the number if two substituents on same carbon c) The preFxes are NOT used in alphabetical prioritization 4-ethyl-2,3,3-trimethylheptane
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6. When two chains of equal length compete to be parent, choose the chain with the greatest number of substituents.
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This note was uploaded on 12/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 2210 taught by Professor Keller during the Spring '11 term at FIU.

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SolomonsLKChapter4 - Chapter 4 Alkanes: Nomenclature,...

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