SolomonsLKChapter11

SolomonsLKChapter11 - Chapter 11 Alcohols and Ethers...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–12. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 11 Alcohols and Ethers
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
CHAPTER 11 Alcohols and Ethers Alcohols contain a hydroxy group (OH) bonded to an sp 3 hybridized carbon. Introduction—Structure and Bonding
Background image of page 2
Alcohols and Ethers Compounds having a hydroxy group on a sp 2 hybridized carbon— enols and phenols —undergo different reactions than alcohols. Introduction—Structure and Bonding Ethers have two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom.
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Alcohols and Ethers Epoxides are ethers having the oxygen atom in a three- membered ring. Epoxides are also called oxiranes . Introduction—Structure and Bonding The C—O—C bond angle for an epoxide must be 60 0 , a considerable deviation from the tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5 0 . Thus, epoxides have angle strain, making them more reactive than other ethers.
Background image of page 4
Alcohols and Ethers The oxygen atom in alcohols, ethers and epoxides is sp 3 hybridized. Alcohols and ethers have a bent shape like that in H 2 O. The bond angle around the O atom in an alcohol or either is similar to the tetrahedral bond angle of 109.5 0 . Because the O atom is much more electronegative than carbon or hydrogen, the C—O and O—H bonds are all polar. Introduction—Structure and Bonding
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Alcohols and Ethers Nomenclature of Alcohols
Background image of page 6
Alcohols and Ethers When an OH group is bonded to a ring, the ring is numbered beginning with the OH group. Because the functional group is at C1, the 1 is usually omitted from the name. The ring is then numbered in a clockwise or counterclockwise fashion to give the next substituent the lowest number. Nomenclature of Alcohols
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Alcohols and Ethers Common names are often used for simple alcohols. To assign a common name: o Name all the carbon atoms of the molecule as a single alkyl group. o Add the word alcohol, separating the words with a space. Nomenclature of Alcohols
Background image of page 8
Alcohols and Ethers Compounds with two hydroxy groups are called diols or glycols . Compounds with three hydroxy groups are called triols and so forth. Nomenclature of Alcohols
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Alcohols and Ethers Simple ethers are usually assigned common names. To do so: o Name both alkyl groups bonded to the oxygen, arrange these names alphabetically, and add the word ether. o For symmetrical ethers, name the alkyl group and add the prefix l di- z . Nomenclature of Ethers
Background image of page 10
More complex ethers are named using the IUPAC system. One alkyl group is named as a hydrocarbon chain, and the other is named as part of a substituent bonded to that chain: o Name the simpler alkyl group as an alkoxy substituent by changing the –yl ending of the alkyl group to –oxy. o Name the remaining alkyl group as an alkane, with the alkoxy group as a substituent bonded to this chain. Nomenclature of Ethers
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 54

SolomonsLKChapter11 - Chapter 11 Alcohols and Ethers...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 12. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online