ME364_abrasive_NTP - Valery Marinov, Manufacturing...

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Non-traditional Processes 141 Valery Marinov, Manufacturing Technology 7.3 NON-TRADITIONAL PROCESSES Traditional vs. non-traditional processes A machining process is called non-traditional if its material removal mechanism is basically different than those in the traditional processes, i.e. a different form of energy (other than the excessive forces exercised by a tool, which is in physical contact with the workpiece) is applied to remove the excess material from the work surface, or to separate the workpiece into smaller parts. The principal characteristics of traditional machining processes (discussed in the previous sections), and non-traditional processes (some of them included in this section) is presented to compare their advantages and limitations: v The cutting tool and workpiece are always in physical contact, with a relative motion against each other, which results in friction and a signiFcant tool wear . In non-traditional processes, there is no physical contact between the tool and workpiece. Although in some non-traditional processes tool wear exists, it rarely is a signiFcant problem; v Material removal rate of the traditional processes is limited by the mechanical properties of the work material. Non-traditional processes easily deal with such difFcult-to-cut materials ike ceramics and ceramic based tool materials, Fber reinforced materials, carbides, titanium-based alloys; v In traditional processes, the relative motion between the tool and workpiece is typically rotary or reciprocating. Thus, the shape of the work surfaces is limited to circular or ±at shapes. In spite of widely used CNC systems, machining of three-dimensional surfaces is still a difFcult task. Most non-traditional processes were develop just to solve this problem; v Machining of small cavities, slits, blind or through holes is difFcult with traditional processes, whereas it is a simple work for some non-traditional processes; v Traditional processes are well established, use relatively simple and inexpensive machin- ery and readily available cutting tools. Non-traditional processes require expensive equipment and tooling as well as skilled labor, which increases signiFcantly the produc- tion cost; ²rom the above it follows that non-traditional processes generally should be employed when v there is a need to process some newly developed difFcult-to-cut materials, machining of which is accompanied by excessive cutting forces and tool wear; v there is a need for unusual and complex shapes, which cannot easily be machined or cannot at all be machined by traditional processes; The non-traditional processes are often classiFed according to the principle form of energy used: v mechanical processes : the mechanical energy differs from the action of the conventional cutting tool. Examples include ultrasonic machining and jet machining ; v electrochemical processes : based on electrochemical energy to remove the material. Examples include
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ME364_abrasive_NTP - Valery Marinov, Manufacturing...

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